Thursday, December 26, 2019

Biography of Judith of France Saxon English Queen

Judith of France (843/844–870), also known as Judith of Flanders,  was married to two Saxon English kings, first the father and then the son. She was also both stepmother and sister-in-law of Alfred the Great. Her son from her third marriage married into the Anglo-Saxon royal line, and his descendant Matilda of Flanders married William the Conqueror.  Her consecration ceremony set a standard for later wives of kings in England. Fast Facts: Judith of France Known For: First woman to be crowned Queen of England; daughter of the King of France; grandmother of Matilda of Flanders, wife of William the ConquerorBorn: October 843 or 844 in Orleans, FranceParents: Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orlà ©ansDied: April 870 in Burgundy, FranceSpouse(s): Saxon king of the West Saxons, Aethelwulf of Wessex (m. October 1, 856–858); Aethelbald of Wessex (m. 858–860); Baldwin I, Count of Flanders (m. 861–870)Children: Charles (b. 864); Baldwin II (865–918); Raoul, Count of Cambrai (867–896); Gunhilde (b. 870), all children with Baldwin I Early Life Judith of France was born in October 843 or 844, the daughter of the Carolingian king of West Francia, known as Charles the Bald, and his wife Ermentrude of Orlà ©ans, daughter of Odo, Count of Orleans and Engeltrude. The Saxon king of the West Saxons, Aethelwulf, left his son Aethelbald to manage Wessex and traveled to Rome on pilgrimage. A younger son Aethelbehrt was made the king of Kent during his absence. Aethelwulfs youngest son Alfred may have accompanied his father to Rome. Aethelwulfs first wife (and mother of his children including five sons) was Osburh; its not known if she had died or was simply cast aside when Aethelwulf negotiated a more important marriage alliance. Returning from Rome, Aethelwulf stayed in France with Charles for some months. There, he was betrothed in July 856 to Charles daughter Judith, who was about 13 years old. Judith Crowned Queen Aethelwulf and Judith returned to his land; they were married on October 1, 856. A consecration ceremony gave Judith the title of queen, making her the first crowned queen of England. Apparently, Charles had won from Aethelwulf a promise that Judith would be crowned queen upon their marriage; earlier wives of Saxon kings were known quite simply as the kings wife rather than carrying a royal title of their own. Two generations later, the queens consecration was made standard liturgy in the church. Aethelbald revolted against his father, perhaps fearful that Judiths children would displace him as his fathers heir, or perhaps just to keep his father from taking control of Wessex again. Aethelbalds allies in the rebellion included the bishop of Sherborne and others. Aethelwulf pacified his son by giving him control of the western part of Wessex. Second Marriage Aethelwulf did not live long after his marriage to Judith, and they did not have children. He died in 858, and his eldest son Aethelbald took over all of Wessex. He also married his fathers widow, Judith, probably in recognition of the prestige of being married to a daughter of the powerful French king. The church condemned the marriage as incestuous, and it was annulled in 860. That same year, Aethelbald died. Now about 16 or 17 years old and childless, Judith sold all of her lands in England and returned to France, while Aethelwulfs sons Aethelbehrt and then Albert, in turn, succeeded Aethelbald. Count Baldwin I Her father, perhaps hoping to find another marriage for her, confined her to a convent. But Judith escaped the convent in about 861 by eloping with a man named Baldwin, apparently with the help of her brother Louis. They took refuge in a monastery at Senlis, where they were likely married. Judiths father Charles was quite angry over this turn of events and got the pope to excommunicate the pair for their action. The couple escaped to Lotharingia and may also have had help from the Viking Rorik. They then appealed to Pope Nicholas I in Rome for help. The Pope interceded with Charles for the couple, who finally reconciled himself to the marriage. King Charles finally gave his son-in-law some land and charged him with dealing with Viking attacks in that area—attacks that, if unchallenged, might threaten the Franks. Some scholars have suggested that Charles had hope that Baldwin would be killed in this effort, but Baldwin was successful. The area, first called the March of Baldwin, became known as Flanders. Charles the Bald created the title, Count of Flanders, for Baldwin. Judith had several children with Baldwin I, Count of Flanders. One son Charles (b. 864), did not survive to adulthood. Another son named Baldwin (865–918), became Baldwin II, Count of Flanders; and a third, Raoul (or Rodulf, 867–896), was the Count of Cambrai. A daughter Gunhilde, born about 870, married Guifre I Count of Barcelona. Death and Legacy Judith  died in about 870, a few years before her father became Holy Roman Emperor. Her significance to the British crown, however, lasted for generations. Judiths genealogy has some important links in British royal history. Sometime between 893 and 899, Baldwin II married Aelfthryth, daughter of the Saxon king Alfred the Great, who was a brother of Judiths second husband and the son of her first husband. One descendant, the daughter of Count Baldwin IV, married Tostig Godwineson, brother of King Harold Godwineson, the last crowned Saxon king of England. More importantly, another descendant of Judiths son Baldwin II and his wife Aelfthryth was Matilda of Flanders. She married William the Conqueror, the first Norman king of England, and with that marriage and their children and heirs, brought the heritage of the Saxon kings into the Norman royal line. Sources Drake, Terry W. The History of the Drake Family and the Times They Lived. Xlibris, 2013.Geary, Patrick J. Women in the Beginning: Origin Myths from the Amazons to the Virgin Mary. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.Oksanen, Eljas. Flanders and the Anglo-Norman World, 1066–1216. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Ward, Jennifer. Women in England in the Middle Ages. London: Hambledon Continuum, 2006.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Why Is Customer Experience Is At The Heart Of Digital...

Why is Customer experience is at the Heart of Digital Transformation? Hook: With the age of the customer upon us, how can businesses provide a frictionless customer experience? One of the major benefits of the digital transformation is the ability for businesses to achieve a much closer relationship with the customer. Businesses must make critical adjustments to their customer experiences that align with the digital shift to remain relevant in the eyes of the customers, partners and employees. 451 Take The essence of putting digital at work in a ‘transformative’ way is to ensure that data and insight are embedded into an automated process, connecting divisions, back office and front office, to eliminate manual processes to more effectively engage customers, partners or employees. As a result, businesses must invest in in new technologies and processes to enhance customer experience. As a result, enterprises must streamline the process that customers use to interact with a business to ensure that the systems used for customer engagement enhance the process and provide accurate information sharing with various back-end systems of record. Access to information must be more responsive and immediate in the age of the customer. The end goal is for businesses to phase out analog and paper-based processes, which are error prone and consumer manual effort. Intro Businesses are struggling with adjusting to the age of the empowered customer and their demands. There are forces ofShow MoreRelatedIT Strategic Plan1945 Words   |  8 Pagesand developing a powerful brand with today’s youth. By capitalizing on our strengths we can turn Bear Beverages into the most successful brand in our industry. This success depends on efficiency, agility, and reaching our youthful, tech-enabled customer. Technology will make this happen. 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Even today, one hundred years later, reaching the right audiences, developing ads and implementing marketing programs that can be directly attributed to consumer engagement, satisfaction and sales remains a vexing challenge for manyRead MoreAnalytics As A Service Of Delivering The Insights Based On Your Own Data2659 Words   |  11 PagesPay-as-you-use policy of AaaS eliminate the capital investment in traditional tools. AaaS caters scalability issues in traditional tools by supplying on-demand available resources. 4.3 Analytics-as-a-Service as the best practice The 5 most common reasons to why an organization should embrace AaaS are states by Capgemini as follows[7]: 1. 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Chart 1: US Selected Automobile Manufacturers Market Share 2013 (Statista, 2013) â€Æ' EXISTING LEADERSHIP â€Å"Leadership is purpose-driven action that brings about change or transformation based on values, ideals, vision, symbols and emotional exchanges† (Bryman, 1992). Grint’s Typology is used as a tool to analyse GM’s existing leadership through several lenses: Person, Purpose, Position and Process. a. From a Personal lens: The

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Christian Perspective on News Media free essay sample

Unless we withdraw to some sort of spiritual ghetto where we could sever ourselves off completely from the persuasion of the media, we have to learn how to deal with the challenges produced by it. The media may not have the political authority to embody the views and concerns of the people, there is still a position in our budding culture for a further relaxation of government control over the media. Of immense significance to us as Christians is that if we allow the sinfulness of humankind as we should, there are more grounds for us to increase extra checks, through other media sources. If being obvious is what we want our political structure to be, an independent media can contribute to a more transparent society where no public servant and political leader can conceal his or her sins. It should be our Christian concern to defend truth and honesty. While vigorous rivalry among the extended (and hopefully expanding) media factions should be encouraged, there is a need to insist that truth will not be surrendered in the name of convenience when information is published without giving enough adequate time for determining correctness and reliability of the account. We will write a custom essay sample on Christian Perspective on News Media or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I think in the past, the truth has been compromised when the major media groups in the United States reported on the results of the presidential elections. The television stations tried to outdo each other by announcing unconfirmed results which turned out to be a political soap opera rather than a reliable news reporting. I think that in the most recent elections, this has become a thing of the past. But there is a place for the Church to recognize the mechanisms of the media and use the media to have a say to the shaping of public values and ethical vision for the sake of the common good. This ultimately means that the Church must be apprehensive about the downside of being fed by media that are closely linked with any particular interest group, including the government. When we as a society ask the questions, whose interest and whose ethics? Forget uncovering for ourselves the veiled interests and sinister values of the media owners and operators, raising the questions should also assist us to be receptive to those (such as the minority groups) whose interests and values might have been ignored by the media which might be more apt to concentrate on the attention and taste of the advantaged and authoritative. Conceivably, the occasion is precise for considerate Christians to form a Christian Media Watch to evaluate the unrestrained behavior of some of the media groups and any harmful values which they may sneak through their pages or editorial biases.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Poly Sci Final Paper Essay Example

Poly Sci Final Paper Essay Final Paper Washington State University Political Science 418 Fall 2012 Section 1 Professor Robert Quinlan December 6, 2012 Introduction This paper is written almost exclusively with information taken directly from the book Families of the Forest  by Alan Johnson about the lifestyle of the Matsigenka Amazonian Natives. Information regarding the Matsigenka is almost solely derived from the work of Johnson unless noted otherwise. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Matsigenka people, their needs as a community and finally pose a development project that meets the needs described. Realistically this is only one possible solution posed by an inexperienced undergraduate student. The author is student who has never set foot in South America or even has had any experience with a development project. The ideas expressed in this work are purely an academic exercise. The author does not assume that the Matsigenka do not already know and or practice some of the ideas shared in this assignment. Overview of the Matsigenka The Matsigenka, a native people  of the  Amazon Basin, live in what Johnson describes as an â€Å"angular landscape, along river valleys surrounded by forested mountains†. We will write a custom essay sample on Poly Sci Final Paper specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Poly Sci Final Paper specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Poly Sci Final Paper specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The Matsigenka have a peripheral environment on the outside edge of conquest lands. They originally settled in to a as a bid to avoid conflicts with other groups. The land is not ideal but good enough to live on while not ever being sought as territory for annexation by other groups. They are very isolated and their living choice has the consequence scarcity. Many of the best crops, fish, and game are not as bountiful as they are in other areas. They have plenty of land for their type of farming and their small population means they do not compete between themselves for resources. Their settlements are small and spread far apart. (Johnson) To understand the Matsigenka they must be seen in their own unique context of their daily lives. As with any parent, the task of raising a child is to raise them to be able to live in the world on their own one day. For the Matsigenka this means raising children who will become accustomed to living in their own nuclear family and thrive while in relative isolation. (Johnson) The Matsigenka’s ability to be independent and desire to remain independent has been disheartening to missionaries and some schoolteachers. Attempts at organizing and building communities have largely been failures. The Matsigenka are happy to be free from directions and rules that stem from a missionary or any other persons attempt to convert or normalize them. (Johnson) From the very beginning their upbringing determines who they are as a people. From the start the emphasis on independence is apparent. No one is invited or comes to visit when a child is born. At birth a newborn is left alone on a mat while the mother is attended to. After a few minutes, the baby is then bathed with hot water causing discomfort making it cry. Johnson) The procedure is done to strengthen the child for the hard independent life to come. The Matsigenka parents test the child’s limits, expecting more and more self-reliance at an early age. In the home, mothers commonly tether toddlers to a stake keeping them from wandering into danger. The method is no more a cruel â€Å"leash† than a baby gate used in American homes could be considered a cruel cage. (Johnson) Tethering allows the child freedom and independence without the danger of physical harm. The Matsigenka’s diet is varied and extensive. Their types of food production are farming, fishing, hunting, and foraging with some small use of domesticated animals. They can eat anything from raw foods found anywhere in their environment or eat feasts involving days of preparation. The people eat insect larvae of many bugs all during the year as source of dietary fats and protein. Larger game birds, monkeys, peccary, and tapir are the favorites. Farming small gardens is the most important to them making up more than half of their food. Foraging and fishing can often time produce disappointing results. Snakes are taboo and never eaten. (Johnson) Their diet poses no issues for them. For crops the people grow manioc (cassava), maze (corn), bananas, plantains, rice and coffee. Coffee has been introduced recently by outsiders as a cash crop. Along with trying to build communities the crop was meant to bring indigenous peoples into contact and trade with the modern parts of Peru. Coffee was seen as way to introduce money into the Matsigenka system. (Johnson) Their farming methods are sufficient to sustain them and the land they work on. The most important fish in the Matsigenka diet is shima. Johnson) These fish get up to 20 inches long and can weigh over 2 pounds. They are bottom feeders caught by net fishing. Mamori are similar in size to shima and caught with a regular hook and line setup. Rock dwelling fish like etari who are caught by hand. Along with other species such as shrimp and kempiti caught in traps fit into their diverse diet. Large fish species of omani, kayunaro and char ava are rarely caught. (Johnson) Domesticated animals are not overly significant to a family. Families typically raise a couple of chickens and ducks. They are allowed to forage around the house during the day, feeding on insects considered pests like ants and sometimes are given maize. At night they are kept in chicken coops tended to by the children. (Johnson) As a people, the Matsigenka are very adaptive and catch all kinds of fish in many different ways. The Matsigenka do not participate in the market economy. Attempts to get them to raise cash crops and begin to participate have been implemented by outsiders. (Johnson) They make nearly all of the material goods used in daily life. However they do not make knives, aluminum pots or other metal items. As men and women they learn complementary manufacturing skills allowing them self-sufficiency. Matsigenka can survive in long-term isolation as a nuclear family with the skills in fishing, farming and hunting in the manner they prefer. (Johnson) The Matsigenka are adaptive, and independent. Needs and resource assessment based on the ethnographic description The Matsigenka have good nutrition and housing but they still have barriers to good overall health. The problems they have are not their fault. As a people they do everything they can like maintain standards of cleanliness, and treat illness with medicines they have available. The problems arise from limited resources and knowledge. (Johnson) For hygiene the Matsigenka clean themselves, their homes, and their clothing daily. Even when they sit on the earthen floor of their home they use a woven mat. (Johnson) They wash their hand before preparing food and are careful with waste. Baths are taken daily and garbage is thrown out in a separate area away from the home. The Matsigenka find human waste disgusting along with animal waste and believe according to Johnson that â€Å"The evil odor of feces is believed to invade the body and cause illness†(436) Families try to locate homes next to mountain streams to ensure a water supply uncontaminated by humans. (Johnson) Mountain streams, dry up seasonally forcing people back to the river for water where they are re-infected by water borne parasites. (Rainforest) Research has shown that the debilitating infections are colds, conjunctivitis, and parasites. Colds and conjunctivitis hit the community in waves. Epidemics move rapidly through the population. Tribal memories still exist of when the white man’s influenza that killed many. The people stay away from everyone and the schools when sickness hits. One of the most common greetings used by members is to ascertain if someone returning is sick and to be avoided. (Johnson) Johnson notes that researchers others who stayed with the Matsigenks stated: Most health complaints came to our attention because the medicines we had with us were believed to be more effective than Matsigenka remedies. Our house became a center where people would stop to tell us their symptoms and ask for treatment. They were pragmatic about accepting this help, seeing illness and injury as more or less naturally occurring. 436) When a family member becomes ill they are left to lie on a mat in their home while the rest of the family ignores the sick person. The Matsigenka believe sickness is life-threatening and feel a sick person is dangerous and best left alone. (Johnson) Johnson describes the Matsigenka as a mixed picture of health: They have an ample diet and are energetic and supple, capable of great feats of athleticism and endurance. They are attractive, maintain personal standards of cleanliness, and attend to their health needs with an array of remedies. On the other hand, they live with parasite loads that weaken them and probably contribute to many infant deaths, they are subject to viral and bacterial infections that periodically sweep their hamlets and incapacitate them putting food production at risk†¦ Despite the beauty of nature surrounding them and their freedom to set their own work agenda, theirs is a hard life evident in the virtual absence of elderly people. (439) A needs and resource assessment based on the ethnographic description provided by Johnson would indicate a few key items. Health education, medical aid, improvements in sanitation, and clean drinking water are the most pressing needs. These could be possibly met using a culturally sensitive and responsible means of service delivery. Development project that meets one or more of the needs described Any project design must take into consideration the unique culture of the people it seeks to help Johnson notes in a prominent way that there is family level of sociocultural integration not a community one and the Matsigenka cannot be understood or appreciated except as a family level society. Meaning, as a group they are not â€Å"tropical-forest villagers† or â€Å"tribal peoples† like most amateur sociologists may picture. Unlike other groups they do not participate in suprafamily, raiding and warfare, structured gift exchange, or even large group feasting. (Johnson) Concepts like a family reunion or organizing a militia to defend their land are completely foreign to their way of life. Johnson notes it is extremely difficult to get them to participate in any group activity. They will listen to and directions but will walk away and refuse to join the proposed group activity. Matsigenka are not amenable to being directed or led. Education or works projects from other regions cannot be rolled out in a cookie cutter fashion to help them. Understanding their independence and determination does not mean that the Matsigenka are closed to change. In the 1980 and 1970’s sierra farmers came to the mountain valleys to live next to Matsigenka families. The new farmers have brought infrastructural development that was welcomed by the Matsigenka people. They created school communities where boys, and girls, play soccer, study and do homework. Radios that can be found now are a sign of the integration of culture from the larger world around them. (Johnson) Most effective long term projects rely on ownership and the pride of the people they seek to help. Pride in ownership translates into maintenance and care of the public works project after the NGO who sets it up leaves. Johnson explains the idea of shintaro â€Å"owner† if we think of it not as legal title to objects like land or trees, but as a form of respect for the individual. Any project must transfer respect as ownership to achieve long term sustainability. Recently in the last 15 years money has been dumped into projects that have failed and been abandoned. (Fraser) It is not enough to just build something and leave. The best way to help might be to model what the rainforest flow project has done and pay special attention to some cultural factors. Any project should consider how ownership is considered, how the people operate as a family level society, the aversion to group activities, and being told what to do. The project should capitalize on their strong sense of hygiene and build on their dislike of human waste. The Matsigenka already intrinsically know about the importance of clean water and washing hands. The leap from understanding clean water and increasing the effectiveness of existing sanitation procedures should be an accomplishable task if executed sensitivly. Hygiene education and health services As a people they are very pragmatic, adaptable and have demonstrated a belief in better westernized medicine when dealing with researchers in the past. (Johnson) Setting up clinics may not be the answer since they will avoid any area where they may go and become sick. The clinic will need to come to the sick, not the other way around. Travelling to and helping sick family members on sleeping on mats in the home will strengthen any belief in stronger westernized medicine. The process will loosen the hold of traditional beliefs in bad spirits having an influence on outcomes. Health education can effectively be delivered using the existing school system and reinforced when educators visit with health professionals providing mobile medical clinic visits. (Rainforest) Previously efforts were made to do similar projects but the participants only spoke Spanish not the native language. To eliminate the language barrier it will be key that the health professionals and educators are fluent in the native language. Workers will need to understand cultural norms of the Matsigenka. (Rainforest) Special consideration should be given to immunization programs. Immunizations can make the people feel sick afterward and may scare participants off. Postponing immunizations until a trust relationship has been built up may be necessary. Credibility may be required for families to believe they are not being made sick after a flu shot or pertussis vaccination. Sanitation The Matsigenka already believe in finding the freshest water. Health education should teach how to defecate away from any water source and bury it when in the forest. The disdain they have for waste and how they conduct life around their home makes them receptive. Composting latrines with hand washing facilities may be built near schools but attention should be given to ventilation and odor control (Rainforest) considering â€Å"The evil odor of feces is believed to invade the body and cause illness†. (Johnson 436) Drinking water projects Delivering clean safe drinking water is of paramount importance to the Matsigenka, or any community. Rainforest Flow has used with self-reported success, for several years, a specific setup that uses low tech sand filtration. The method removes 99. 9 percent of bacteria from drinking water and uses a low tech gravitational flow. The systems are setup to support modest community growth and are maintained by a usage fee charged to every home water is delivered to. (Rainforest) In conclusion there are many projects that can possibly help the Matsigenka. The purpose of this paper was to introduce the Matsigenka people, their needs as a community and pose a development project that meets their needs sensitively. Like any group, assistance must be provided to them on their terms for it to be accepted. References Fraser, B. (2012, May 25). Machiguenga communities could be affected by peru gas production. Retrieved from Johnson, A. (2003). Families of the forest the matsigenka indians of the peruvian amazon. University of California Press. Retrieved from http://www. sscnet. ucla. edu/anthro/faculty/johnson/ethnography. html Rainforest flow. (2012, December 01). Retrieved from http://houseofthechildren. org/safe- drinking-water. html