Saturday, August 31, 2019

Black Psychology Essay

Abstract: This is an autobiographical essay where I briefly analyzes and interpret significant and impactful events that has transpired over my last 20 years in my life from school to my community in Portland, Oregon. The objective of this essay is to connect concepts and the course objectives related to Black Psychology which I enrolled in at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU) spring 2009 term. The outline for this essay is in a chronological age order starting from my birth in 1988 till my current experience at FAMU. The book that is mainly referenced in this essay is the Kobi K. Kambon textbook African/ Black Psychology in American Context: An African Centered Approach along with Joseph Baldwin’s class lectures that I attended. Divided Among two Different Views of the World: But this is my Story The idea that a black person is from Portland, Oregon seems to be shocking information for certain African-Americans. Once I introduce myself to new friends and professors who never traveled to Portland or were never informed that â€Å"Black people† live in Oregon. Many are intrigued by this information and have a quest to know more. So to answer that question, yes there are blacks who live in Oregon. I am a product of Oregon I, Michelle Williams, was born and raised in the urban community in Portland amongst other African-Americans. One may assume that I had a difficult time growing up in Oregon. Experiencing discrimination, racism, or identity crisis; however, my six siblings and I never did. Although, I did not experience those types of issues, I understood that in Portland, the Black race was the minority and Europeans were the majority in the race factor. In addition, do not assume that my family lineage only lines in Oregon, on both sides of my family southern roots run deep. Therefore, southern traditions, values, morals, beliefs, and customs were inbreeded into my up brings. Without questions, I am an African-American woman from Portland, Oregon; however, my geographic region does not define my blackness, nor does it determine if I am capable of experiencing hardships like my fellow peers who were raised in Southern states. In my early childhood, I resided with my maternal grandmother due to my parent’s abuse to their environment and the use of narcotics. However, my time spent with my grandmother was not in vein, yet filled with years of observing and learning how to uphold traditional southern values, which the modern world of psychology considers the â€Å"African/ Black Worldviews†. In the book, African/ Black Psychology in the American context: An African- Centered Approach Kobi K. Kambon explains the difference between the African/ Black and European Worldviews. The four components that compose the worldviews are: cosmology, ontology, axiology, and epistemology (Kambon, 1998) In the African/ African-American worldviews one are taught to believe in oneness/ harmony with nature, survival of the group, sameness; whereas the European Worldview have the notion of survival of the fittest, competiveness, independence, and uniqueness (being different). In my middle childhood my parents redirected their life, and my mother returned to college and obtained her bachelors and masters in Psychology with a minor in Black Studies at Portland State University. While in school she begun to incorporate her findings into her parenting. Although, my mother and I were led by Eurocentric teachings, my family and our surroundings reinforced the black/African-American Worldviews in the household. I recall myself adapting to the ideologies and beliefs of those who were not within my own indigenous cultural group. Kambon defines this experience as a black child who has been influenced by Eurocentric teachings resulting in â€Å"Abnormal Unnatural Circumstances†. The child has accepted and identified him or herself as a member of a â€Å"group that is not indigenous cultural reality (Kambon, 1998). I was able to bounce back to the normal-nature circumstances, with the help of my Black community friends, and family through our morals and beliefs. I had to stay true to my own cultural reality and not be amongst those who are â€Å"cultural mis-identified†. An example of how I demonstrated abnormal unnatural circumstances was when I accepted the European philosophies and allowed the whites to dictate and define what was appropriate or correct based off their standards and views on life. By this I allowed the notion that white Barbie dolls are better, rather than the Black China Doll my grandmother purchased for Christmas one year. While in middle school, which is considered my late or pre-adolescence years, I was offered acceptance into the Talent and Gift also known as the TAG program. The TAG programs honors and congratulates students â€Å"who demonstrated outstanding abilities or potentials in areas of general intellectual ability or specific ability aptitude† (Davenport Community School Website). After discovering the truth in the Black Psychology course, I have come to the understanding that this particular program has several flaws that discriminates against the Black race. The black students who excel above the standards set for Blacks are called â€Å"Talented or Gifted†. In chapter eight it stated that â€Å"there was some Blacks who scored as high as Whites on Standard tests of so-called intelligence (i.e research on Black â€Å"gifted† children)† (Kambon, 1998). The foundation of the Tag program continues and supports â€Å"White Supremacy†. The definition the European psychologist use to define intelligence which were examined on Caucasians only was: â€Å"(a) the repertoire of intellectual/cognitive skills and knowledge available to a person at any one period of time, or (b) the aggregate of global capacity of the individual to act purposely, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his/her environment† (Kambon,1998). The names of a couple of exams that exemplified that one was intelligent were: The Alfred Binet and the Binet Test, also known as Intelligence Quotient/ IQ, Charles Spearman with the GS Factor test, and a few others (Kambon, 1998). Robert L. Williams the second National Chairman/ President of American of Black Psychologists (ABPsi) (Kambon, 1998), developed a â€Å"Black â€Å"cultural specific† intelligence test which demonstrated that Blacks could perform superiority to Whites on such a Black cultural based test. The test was called Black Intelligence Test for Cultural Homogeneity† formally known as â€Å"BITCH’. His intelligence test showcased that African-American students were out performing whites by 30 to 50 points (Kambon, 1998). In relations to my acceptance to the TAG program I felt a sense of being privileged, superior, and connected to the white race in some sense. I belittled my peers who the Europeans and the test scored them as being underachievers. Through my actions I had continued on the European worldviews. The people see the good that the TAG program promotes; however, there are down sides and negative characteristics of being called a â€Å"Talented or Gifted† child. In my early adolescence years, I was considered at times a student who could be insubordinate, disrespectful, and disruptive in class. However, my actions were to challenge an question my teacher’s philosophy about Western History, colonization in Africa, slavery, and anything that focused on the Black race. Now looking back on what transpired in high school I was trying to discover the truth regarding my peoples. I tried to unravel the mess that the Europeans, Western historians, philosophers, and psychologist created. Removing the blind folds that had been placed over my eyes through the European teachings; I was tired of receiving the edited, shorten, and beautified story the teachers and academic curriculum spoon-feed me every year during the one month Blacks are allowed to celebrate their history (February). I have come to accept that knowledge is key and discovered like John Henrik Clarke that, â€Å"African History/ Negro History are the missing pages of World History† (John Henrik Clarke, 1996). In chapter three of Kambon books, he explains this idea of cultural reality and worldviews construct, and how â€Å"ones thoughts beliefs, values and actions are not uniquely our own, distinct and separate from those of others, particularly other individuals† (Kambon, 119). In today’s society we accept as true that European’s set the standards or dictated/ guide one to believe that their ways of living and doing things are how things ought to be done; continues white supremacy. I am now in my third year at FAMU as a nursing major interested in psychology, following sibling’s footsteps of attending a Historical Black University. My journey in the Black Psychology has taught me new things about my personality and where I come from. In my opinion Oregon is a diverse and complex state. I had adopted and balanced the different worldviews. From my secondary education I have come to a new found knowledge about this Black Psychology and it’s striving for perfection in the Black communities. I have come to understand that my people are from the Southern or African Cradle, which developed before the Northern or European Cradle a model Diop (Kambon, 1998). I am from the lineage of infamous Pharaoh’s and Queens such as Narmar, Pharaoh and Queen who whore the red and white crown Hatshepsut (Abarry, 1996). For years information has been hidden and sheltered from my peers and I. Not only from the African descendents in Oregon, but from all of the descendents of Africa has that populated the 50 states in America. I have learned that I am a descendant of great Queens and Kings and African’s who were educated, governed themselves, ran a successful economy that was developed in many aspects before the 1500’s when Europeans arrived. Ancient Kemit (KMT) and the Ma’at which is the foundation in which the KMT people lived by (Abarry, 1996). I have grown accustomed to both Western and this new psychology called â€Å"Black Psychology†. I am able to observe and fully understand and acknowledge the course objectives in Black Psychology because I have been in the ream of both worlds. My parents were educated and products of the early 60’s; where there was a large movement on civil rights and black psychologist making a change for the black community. Such as the Pan-African Cultural nationalism movement group who where â€Å"Black Psychologist who advocate that race and culture are the foundation of African self-identity and psychological well being† (Kambon, 1998). Black psychology has made tremendous accomplishments; they have challenged the ideals and ideologies of Western Psychology. Rather than being the blinded test mice used in Western Psychology, Black psychologist has made a mark in Psychology. There has been a creation of Psychology geared to the Blacks. They have developed an impressive editorial journal that comes out quarterly called The Journal of Black Psychology which has been around for about 35 years (Kambon, 1996). The members of the Association of Black Psychologist have overcome many obstacles that have been presented in front of them, and will continue to do so for following years to come (Kamon, 1998). I find that my mind was once held captive in a sense, before I entered college under Eurocentric teachings. I upheld the ideas of Eurocentric teachings, yet the status quo has changed; in favor for the Black Race, and my cognitive for that matter. In today’s society black children are taught by a Eurocentric teaching, where there is a mis-education which manifests itself in the Eurocentric conceptual incarceration (Kambon, 1998). The portrait the European psychologists painted through their views and studies of the black race, personality, mental health, and behavioral problems have not reflected the Black people in anyway. On the contrary it has caused a separation between blacks. Those who believed in changing the psychology world for the black race have succeeded at founding its place and did not allow the standards set by Western Psychology to be the foundation for Black Psychology (Kambon, 1996). Today the black’s can see the ‘great depth of the Eurocentric cultural incarceration that encapsulates African intellectual consciousness and scholarship. † (Kambon,1998). Which has caused a developmental problem of the knowledge of the African/ black race. From the motivation of Francis Cecil Sumner, Herman G. Canady, Robert L. Williams, Marcus Gravey, Nat Turners, W. E. B Dubois, Frances Cress Welsing, and the thousands of members of the Association of Black Psychology, there is a psychology that focuses on the black community which is not defined by the Western Psychology standards. It is up to students like me to utilize the essential tools from courses like Black Psychology, and turn a deaf ear to the myths and misleading information that the Western Psychology once succeeded at incarcerating. This was my experience from growing up in Portland, Oregon and making a much need journey to Florida A&M University which landed me a seat in Dr. Joseph Baldwin course Black Psychology. References Abarry, S. , Asante, M. ,(1996). African intellectual Heritiage. Philadelphia, PA: Temple Press A Great and Might Walk. Dir. St. Claire Bourne. Perf. Wesley Snipes John Henrik Clarke. 1996. Bourne, C. [Westley Snipes] (1996): Los Angles Davenport Community School Website. (1998, Aug). Retrieved Mar. 09, 2009, from http://www. davenport. k12. ia. us/curriculum/gifted. asp Kambon, K. (1998). African/ black psychology in the american context: an african- centered approach. Tallahassee, Fl: Nubian Nation Publication.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Drug Synergism: Synergistic Interaction between Alcohol and other Drugs

Drug synergism is the phenomenon wherein the effects of a drug is enhanced when taken with other substances. Synergy is defined as the state wherein the combined action of constituents is greater than the sum of its parts. The synergistic effect when drugs are taken in combination is due to the fact that each constituent (between two different dugs or between a drug and another substance) contributes to the effect of the other in accordance with its own potency.Chemical reactions between the drug or drugs and other substances, and the chemicals inside the body, particularly in those of the liver, also exist. One substance that can enhance the effects of a drug more than it usually can is alcohol. The combination of alcohol and depressant drug could cause exaggerated respiratory depression—a disease characterized by fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigability—periods of amnesia or loss of memory while intoxicated.The enhanced effect of depressant drug when taken with al cohol could be explained with what happens inside the body. For example, when the depressant drug alprazolam is taken together with alcohol, the liver becomes occupied in metabolizing the alcohol such that the sedative-hypnotic drug is circulated through the body at full strength (Inaba, ). It must be noted that alcohol and certain drugs, especially depressant drugs, â€Å"compete for the same liver enzymes that break down drugs and flush them from the body† (Dye, 2007).At the same time, alcohol also dissolves alprazolam more readily than stomach fluid does, allowing it to be absorbed more rapidly by the body (Inaba, ). As a result, alcohol and alprazolam, or any depressant drugs that can react to alcohol for that matter, can cause more problems when taken in combination than if they were taken at different times. Alcohol, therefore, contributes to the lethality of drug-taking behavior by increasing the effects of drugs taken in tandem with alcohol..Drugs, especially those th at can cause adverse effects, should be taken with care as the combination of one with another or other substances may enhance its effects. Alcohol, for one, can alter the body’s normal reaction to a specific drug, increasing its effects. It can also react with the drug such that its effects are enhanced. Needless to say, taking alcohol and drugs should be avoided.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Analysis of “Can-can” by Arturo Vivante

The story under the title â€Å"Can-can† was written by Arturo Vivante. Born in Rome in 1923, Arturo Vivante graduated in 1949 and practiced medicine in Rome until 1958 when he ended his medical career and moved to America to pursue a career as a professional writer. Vivante has since been on the faculty of several American universities and is now retired and living in Wellfleet, Massachusetts. Though Vivante writes in English and has lived in America for much of the last 35 years, his Italian heritage has an undeniable presence in his fiction.His short stories often read like reflections or memories of a distant and foreign past that a reader of Vivante cannot help but link to the life of the transplanted author himself. The plot of the story under the discussion is quite interesting and I dare say close to our reality. A man is going to the secret meeting with the other woman, leaving his house, wife and children. Suddenly it occurs to him that he wants to stay, but the date is already arranged.So, having arrived to the summer cottage he finds himself thinking of his wife and that surprises him greatly. The problem raised by the author is quite clear: the husband intends to have a love affair and is already unfaithful to his wife. However some feeling of upset, comprehension of the fact his wife is still a sweet cherry, not broken by a small stuff, a woman able to give him love and firmness – doesn’t let him stay calm.Awaiting the woman at the cafe he hopes she wouldn’t come and he would return home easily and happily: â€Å"How strange he should be hoping for her absence. † Even spending time with the lover he misses his wife and thinks of her. How is that possible? Let’s characterize the wife. First of all we should say she is fairly a wise woman. We see she loves her husband and wants to have a happy family as any woman does: â€Å"she felt safer with him at home, and he helped look after the children, especially the baby. â€Å"

Orgnizational behiviour and Human Resources Dissertation

Orgnizational behiviour and Human Resources - Dissertation Example This area is of particular interest to me, as the traditional theory of viewing firms as mere machines and employees as part of the machinery, does not hold water anymore. Instead, the new theories now place more stress on the underlying interrelationships between employees, and between the employer and employees, in order to achieve greater market success. These new theories bring in the sociological perspective that adds another interesting dimension to the concept of work and organisational behaviour and human resources. Study of human nature, character, behavioural attitudes, within the realms of the workplace, form an interesting study, where one gets to examine the various facets and complexities of the human mind and thought, and the social influences on the human mind, while finally connecting these aspects to the market achievement of a business firm. Contents Abstract 6 1 Introduction 7 1.1 Problem statement 9 1.2 Aims and objectives 10 1.3 Significance of the study 10 Bibl iography 11 Abstract A majority of the workplaces reflect certain major characteristics that as sum total, tend to constitute incompatible or inconsistent organizational behaviour, which is evident when observed through an aggressive and realistic theory of market ef?ciency as seen in the various theories of economics. Many US and UK workplaces (and elsewhere in the world) reflect, a largely prevalent, work related dissatisfaction, a sense of scepticism, and detachment. Many researches into this line give evidences that suggest that these problems are increasing with negative implications for the organisation as a whole, which includes both employers and employees. These researches also show that the manners in which the organisation manages its people and the latters’ level of job satisfaction and attitude towards work can signi?cantly foresee various aspects pertaining to organizational achievement, thus clearly establishing a link between a firm’s human resources an d its overall effectiveness in the competitive market. My research paper proposes to closely examine the factor of organisational behaviour and its association with managements of human resources, while studying the close relationship between the two factors

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

How Other Countries Approach Reentry. Whether Their Approaches are Research Paper

How Other Countries Approach Reentry. Whether Their Approaches are More Successful - Research Paper Example Introduction Reentry program involves the use of certain programs that are targeted at promoting the effective reintegration of people released from jails and prisons back to the community. Reentry is a comprehensive case management approach that is intended to aid former prisoners to gain skills that would assist them to become law abiding citizens. It helps people with criminal background become self-sufficient and become productive upon release from jail (Ismaili, 2010). This paper focuses on the issue of reentry, and particularly compares the effectiveness of incarceration approaches of different countries. Some recommendations on the best practices have also been provided. How other counties approach reentry Parole The processes of releasing prisoners vary from country to country. Parole is used after certain sentence is served. In Finland, there is a general rule that requires individuals, who have not been to prison for a period of up to three years, to be paroled after servin g the first half of the sentence. Australia also uses automatic parole to manage the reentry of the prisoners once they are released. The court is used in England and Wales to determine the proportion of the sentence that a prisoner serves, while a parole board is used to determine who among the prisoners is eligible for the parole. Supervised Probation Period In Finland, prisoners who have long sentences are placed under supervised probation. This happens when such people need more support and services while in the community. In other nations, the practice of supervision once the individuals are released is defined by the mode of supervision, which gives clear distinction (Ismaili, 2010). This reduces the application of supervised parole. In Canada and Australia, they use the supervised and service parole as reentry approach. Supportive Parole This is where the state incorporates more reentry services. This is particularly informed by the pressure of the population of prisoners. It is designed to assist prisoners who are back to the community with advice and supervision by the parole officers. In such cases, there are always risk management strategies. Whether Their Approaches are more successful Than Ours (Why or Why Not) Reentry services should help people successfully return permanently to the society. It also helps reduce the number of people in prison. These jurisdictions have some form of supervision practices that are carried out. Unlike in our country, reentry in these countries is usually accompanied by an automatic release before the end of the routine sentence (Australia, Finland and Germany). The reentry services in these states are usually automatic, widely and routinely available. In addition, the prisoners are rarely imprisoned until their term ends. Instead, they are released and provided with service of a parole agency - this is commonly described as probation. The practice of surveillance, which is used to prevent committing of more offences , ensures that released individuals are not remanded. In our country, the number of paroles who are returned to prison after a particular parole is revoked is high. This has been attributed to the nature of supervision that is conditional. In the U.S, the parole is designed to arrest the individual. In other jurisdictions, they ensure that prisoners who are

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Chinese Artist Gu Kaizhi and some of his artwork mainly Nymph of the Research Paper

Chinese Artist Gu Kaizhi and some of his artwork mainly Nymph of the Luo River - Research Paper Example One such popular artist was Gu Kaizhi who  was born in c. 344 at Wuxi, Jiangsu province in China and died in the year c. 406. As a native of Jiangsu, Wuxi province, Gu whose origin was from an Eastern dynasty elite family grew up and became a fantastic painter and writer. From his bibliography, it is clear that during the jin shu (Jin) history, Gu paintings were successful (Suzuki 6). He is noted to have paid high attention to identifying the figures’ eyes so as to obtain the spiritual communion effect. His successive dynasties’ famous paintings imply that Gu’s explored his talent while using his brush and when the painting was complete the actual conception had been embroidered. Some of the books that Gu authored include the introducing famous Jin Dynasties and Wei Paintings, On painting, and Record on the Yuntai mountain painting. It has been noted that theories that were documented in these books still affect the Chinese painters generation. He is among the earliest many-faceted China artists who came up with new standards for figure painting. As widely noted, Gu Kaizhi was one of the most popular eccentric courtier commonly known for being a figure subject and a painter of portraits. His art has been known for both paintings and written records and recorded as being one among the many who painted the representation of the Vimalakirti. The hand scroll popularly referred to as the nymph of the Luo River, which illustrates a Daoist poem and his essay often referred to as on the painting the Cloud Terrace Mountain are the two versions of paintings recorded as his painting (Yang 19). The popular hand scroll that bears the title The Admonitions of Court Instructress has his signature although it has not been recorded as his own original painting (Yang 29). However, one thing to content with is that it accurately maintains its Pre-Tang dynasty style with the scroll illustrating a series of scenes often separated by texts of didactic Confucia n poem with a proper character for court ladies. It also has a line carefully controlled with a composition that highlights the selected details which illustrate and expand effectively on the nature of the text. This paper seeks to discuss one of the works of Gu Kaizhi paintings, commonly referred to as The Nymph of the Luo River. Certainly, The Nymph of the Luo River is one of the most likeable Gu Kaizhi’s paintings. The work was painted by Cao Zhi and inspired by Ode. It existed in three copies closely related to the Sing dynasty. One of the copies is held in the Freer Gallery in Washington, D.C. while the other is in the Beijing’s Palace Museum, and the last copy was in Manchuria. This was brought to that place by Pu Yi who was the last emperor. He did this while operating as the Manchukuo’s puppet emperor under the rule of the Japanese. However, after the Japanese surrendered in 1945, the painting disappeared and was brought back after ten years to the provi ncial Museum at Liaoning. Historically, Cao Zhi was a poet in a period of three kingdoms (McCausland 10). The poem narrates a story of love between a woman referred to as Zhen and the poet. The woman later marred the elder brother of Cao Zhi who was known as Cao Pei. The poem describes the romantic encounter at the nymph and the lingering love experience of Cao Pei towards the wife of his brother. It captures the first

Monday, August 26, 2019

Soccer, The Golden Era Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Soccer, The Golden Era - Essay Example The season went down well for months, and after it was over the approach changed and instead it was merged the selection of league (Mauricio 36). They were divided into A- League teams this league was named along Fifa’s recognition. In the same year, olympics took of, hosted by Atlanta, the men in the olympic did not perform well as it was expected, women performed their best and worn in the olympics that year. Then there after, it was soccer, this tournament had a huge number of fans from every corner of the world during the final day of the match. The success of the women in both games motivated the U.S organizing comittee that was taking care of the whole event (Richard 31). The organising body said, â€Å"it will be ready to support any games especially soccer, to improve the talents of people out their and also recognize were their is an effort made towards success.† Meanwhile, the world cup 1998, was about to kick of, and the qualifications were also in a process. The first time that U.S won, was back in the year 1977, this was the first time for U.S to qualify without involving Mexico (William 17). This was a success, and they had to work smart to make sure they retain the posion again. Some of the main team players were also from different states, but all determined to win in every game. FIFA provided coaches kits, and also playing grounds with large holding capacities, reason being the number of fans was growing at a high rate. In 1999, had considerable success stories, but in this same year women’s, soccer was set to begin (James 25). The women’s energy and the determination made people to have high expectations on them the team tied up for the first position before they were to go for the finals. The team, which was made up of youths, had a loyal fan base which was peaceful and also excellent sportsmanship, and respect. The team was the ambassador for young girls as their role

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Literature Review on Change Management Research Paper

Literature Review on Change Management - Research Paper Example Managing change in an organization is a complex procedure which involves various factors which influence the transformation initiatives. The quality and change management are interlinked in a manner that it is extremely essential to administer quality of the ongoing project. If project is behind schedule or lacks some elements it is essential to introduce change management procedures after having proper consent from the management. Every manager perceives differently about the change management initiatives because of their personal experiences and the success factors which they have faced. Change management requires companies to tackle with every problem according to their priorities which allows manager to easily allocate resources and skills for resolving them (Sirkin, Keenan, & Jackson, 2013). These measures and indicators can easily be applied to any working organization for having enterprise change management. But it must be clearly defined that change management is different fo r every department of a business. ... nal Organisation The procedure which is being followed in educational organizations are quite different from what is being followed in business sector. The educational organizations have a lot of external pressure which they have on their learning curriculum. The courses and their associated areas require universities to cope with the changing procedures and develop strategies for implementing such change management practices in their daily official routines. Education sector requires proper funding from external sources for competing with the changing learning patterns being implemented worldwide. Students are now required to spend substantial time of their lectures and assignments and follow new learning patterns. Besides there are instances in which universities and colleges are emerging against litigation issues which has increased the scrutiny procedures along with conductance of external audits from third parties (Szamosi & Duxbury, 2002). Education sector is bound to follow th ese changes as it helps them in ranking their services and learning standards accordingly in comparison with other international universities. Educational sector needs to be aware of the change management procedures because it plays a central role in social and economic upheaval and in some countries it is considered as a major contributor of export and import. For remaining competitive with the changing business patterns it is essential that educational sector must respond to all these changes in a positive manner and design actions to combat with these forces appropriately. Change management procedures allow management of this sector to determine whether the key quality improvements and strategic developments have been identified and implemented as required. It is also useful for

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Are Democracies Inherently Peaceful Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Are Democracies Inherently Peaceful - Essay Example The main reason people oppose monocracy and military rule is that countries led by such ruling systems are more likely to engage in wars and other type of international conflicts as compared to democratic system. Citizens of those states cannot obtain a peaceful living environment and this situation adversely affects their quality of living. As compared to monocracy, oligocracy, or military rule, democracies are inherently peaceful unless they are unjustifiably attacked by external powers. Giving specific focus to the era of World War I & II, this paper will discuss how democracies are inherently peaceful. Democracy and Peace Many authors opine that democracies strive to provide a peaceful living situation to their people and ensure that living standards of citizens are improved continuously. Undoubtedly, a country’s citizens are the primary stakeholders of a war as they actually bear the miseries of engaging in or financing wars. Therefore, common people are less likely to su pport wars or cross border intrusions. In a democratic country, people have more say in making decisions, and hence they can successfully veto individuals’ decision to fight and finance wars. In contrast, king is the sovereign ruler in monarchies and people have little participation in decision making. As a result, kings can individually take decisions to start or support wars with little personal risk. In order to improve this worse situation, leaders worldwide are strongly supporting democracy. In the opinion of Bass, the Clinton administration’s efforts to form a global ‘community of democracies’ was an attempt to bring peace to the whole world and it was greatly encouraged by many nations. As Bass notes, in their book ‘Electing to fight’, political scientists Edward D. Mansfield and Jack Snyder opine that emerging democracies are often unstable and are more likely to fight wars. To justify their claim that new democracies without having fu lly formed domestic institutions are aggressive, the authors cite the examples ranging from France’s attack on Prussia in 1870 and Vladimir Putin’s ongoing monstrous clampdown in Chechnya. However, sometimes even fully formed democratic countries become warlike because of several reasons. To explain, it is better to consider the 1959 attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel or Bush administration’s invasion of Iraq. Those wars were fought because the democratic governments often found it difficult to trust dictators for serious negations. Similarly, the US attack on Afghanistan in 2001 was in response to the 9/11 terror attack by Afghan militants. More clearly, some wars or interventions organized by democratic countries cannot be termed as aggressive or unpeaceful because they are ultimately aimed at the protection of fundamental democratic notions. As Buchanan points out, Elihu Root, Theodore Roosevelt’s secretary of state stated in 1917 that â₠¬Å"to be safe, democracy must kill its enemy when it can and where it can† (np). The democratic peace theory, often referred to as democratic peace, strongly supports the argument that democracies are inherently peaceful. According to Pace, the democratic peace theory states that democracies are not likely to engage in armed conflict with other identified democracies (269). The democratic peace is contrast to the theories describing war engagement and it can be considered as a ‘theory of peace’ explaining motives that discourage state-sponsored violence. The democratic peace theory is mainly based on the premise that democratic leaders are to bear the responsibility of war losses and they are responsible for answering a voting public. In order to retain their public support, democratic leaders

Friday, August 23, 2019

Essentials Mangement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Essentials Mangement - Essay Example â€Å"Without inspiration the best powers of the mind remain dormant, they is a fuel in us which needs to be ignited with sparks† (Johann Gottfried Von Herder, n.d) Motivation is accepted as the driving force behind every human action and organizational principles; whether it is traditional or new, also give much importance to motivation in a business setup. Human actions are primarily for certain goals and anything which helps them to achieve these goals will motivate them. Organizations are spending a substantial period of time in researching about the possible methods or strategies which can motivate the employees. Traditional methods like the rewards and punishments are not enough at present and the employees are thinking something beyond that because of the changing culture, social norms and life styles. The question of a generalised theory of motivation is on card for long time and many business experts are divided in their opinions about the above issue. This paper crit ically analyses the possibility of a generalised theory of motivation at work place. From the above diagram it is clear that achievement, recognition, nature of work and responsibility are the key motivating factors whereas how the business is run, supervision, work conditions and pay scale are the main areas which can demoralize or prevent the workers from achieving job satisfaction. An employee will be definitely motivated, if his achievements are recognized and complemented by the organization. For example, a worker who completes a project efficiently, economically and before the schedule should be complemented by some rewards which will boost his energy for improving his productivity further and further. On the other hand, if the organization fails to respond such outstanding piece of works will definitely prevent the employees from making a conscious effort

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Compare Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. Essay Example for Free

Compare Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. Essay In the 1960’s there was an uprising of sorts. The â€Å"black† communities were beginning to realize their constitutional rights†¦or the lack there of. There were a few bold souls that decided to take a stand, no matter what the consequences. Many know of Rosa Parks, the woman who decided to take a stand (no pun intended) on a local bus, refusing to give up her seat near the front and move to the back. Others participated at â€Å"sit in’s† inside diners labeled â€Å"whites only†. For every attempt of expressing their desire and need for equality, all efforts were shot down. There was no unity, no one to rally the hearts and minds of blacks and whites alike. But then a pastor from Montgomery Alabama leaded the largest civil rights boycott against busses to date. Through his soothing voice and outstanding charisma, Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the strongest and most influential civil rights activists. But he was not alone in his drive for equality. There were others fighting for the same cause. One of those zealots was a man named Malcolm Little (later ditched his â€Å"slave name† and picked up X to signify his lost tribal name). Both men were similar in many ways, but yet at the same time were very, very different. in his speeches Malcolm refers to himself and his followers as Black Nationalist Freedom Fighter. He viewed the â€Å"white supremacists† as enemies. In his speeches he talks about how the white politicians hired black and white promoters to go into the black neighborhoods to press the flesh for them promising false promises. His belief of Black Nationalism is that they stay away from their enemy. Create their own community and have their own politicians who have the communities’ interests at heart. If you can take notice in his speeches he is not trying to get the blacks to beg for equality or ask to end segregation. He is saying that blacks should unite together and fight against their common enemy. The philosophy of Black Nationalism can be enforced no matter what your religion, he makes points that they don’t hang you because you are Lutheran, Christian, or Muslim, they ha ng you because you are black. He states in several other occasions that these sit in’s cannot accomplish anything. They must take action to affect the crackers. He refers to the Revolution war, how the little tea boycott did not work, how the Americans were tired of being taxed and oppressed and compares it to the struggle for black rights. These are just a few points that Malcolm makes in his speeches. On the flip side, The man, Martin Luther King Jr. gives several  speeches concerning the freedom and the relief from oppression of the black people. For example, in his â€Å"I Have A Dream† Speech, 200 Thousand people, black and white, have gathered to hear the inspiring wordsof Martin Luther King Jr. He asks those gathered to ask the government for their constitutional right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Then he assures that there will be no rest until the blacks are granted and guaranteed civil rights. This next sentence, it is one of the biggest differences between MX and MLKJr. He said: â€Å"Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred†. That statement is the biggest divider between the beliefs of Mr. X and Mr. King. â€Å"I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: We hold th ese truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today.† Is there a alternative motive in the eyes of Mr. King? I think not. In the eyes of Mr. X? I believe there is. If Black Nationalism had evolved, it would have resulted in a war. Not a war of words or of silent hate†¦but a violent war of death and destruction. All that Mr. King wanted was his constitutional rights for him and everyone across the globe. Before he was assassinated, Mr. King won the Nobel Peace Prize and an award of $54 ,000, which he promptly donated to his civil rights movement. So through comparing the ideals and lives of both these great and influential men, we can see that they both have a same idea†¦.but methods and desires for change are much different. Mr. King wanted to have a peace full protest, to open the eyes of the public, white or black; Whereas Mr. X wanted change, and he wanted it now.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

First auditors of Gadget limited Essay Example for Free

First auditors of Gadget limited Essay 1. Identify the independence factors, and any other issues, that you and your co-partners in Ernest Peat Co will need to consider in order to determine whether your firm can put itself forward to act as the first auditors of Gadget limited and the measure that may be taken to resolve any perceived conflicts. The purpose of an audit is to provide an independent Examination by an appropriately qualified person for the benefit of interested parties to whom the auditor reports to. The principle of auditor independence is established via the Companies Act, and also an ethical code. Auditors are therefore expected to be independent of those whose work they are auditing and to whom they are reporting. There are two types of audit independence 1- Practitioner independence 2- Profession independence Practitioner independence: is the state of mind of the actual auditor. There are three types of independence that may determine whether independence has been put at risk. Michelle Bond is a substantial shareholder in Gadget Limited, however she is not a director. Her rights as a shareholder does however has some bearing on the decision making process however only on an influential not binding basis. Independence becomes an issue as to whether the objectivity of Earnest Peat Co can be maintained. Basil Bond must be seen to be acting objectively in order to provide an independent view of the company and not on the conflicting interest of protecting his sisters investment. The Companys Act 1985 does not disqualify a shareholder or debtor/creditors of the company or close relative of an officer/employee for that matter, but each RSB has an ethical code, which includes threats to independence, and objectivity which would normally disqualify the auditor in the circumstances cited. Jenny Jordan, has also anticipated that she will also engage your firm to act as tax advisors. By providing additional services as well as performing the function of auditor the issue of independence may be raised in a both positive and negative light. The provision of other services may increase independence because of the value of the auditor to the client , i. e. due to value of service, and therefore there will be increased dependence of the client on the auditor. This essentially reduces the pressure of the client and results in the perception of greater independence On the other hand the greater the dependence of the auditor on the client because of the value of fee, thus reduces the auditors liability to withstand pressure and there independence is at risk. Jenny Jordan has enquired whether you or one of your partners could act as company secretary As auditor, Earnest Peat Co. must members of an RSB as an overall prerequisite for eligibility to act as a corporate auditor. At the individual company level the CA 85 states that a person is ineligible for appointment as auditor if he or she is an officer or employee of the company a partner or employee of such a person a partnership in which such a person is a partner. In light of this is a member of Earnest Peat Co. is appointed as company secretary, he or she couldnt be appointed as auditor as well. Other issues that may be of some relevance Size of firm: the audit firm; Earnest Peat Co comprises of three partners and therefore considered to be a small audit firm as opposed to large firms comprising of large numbers of partners and professional staff spread throughout the world with many offices. Resources Expertise Earnest Peat Co. must ensure that there are adequate resources for example staffing the audit with staff with the necessary expertise in order to maintain the integrity of the audit independence. Earnest Peat Co. comprises of three partners who are registered auditors and accountants and therefore it must be questioned whether or not this is enough. This is can be used as an indication of the dependence of the audit firm on the client, as Earnest Peat Co are of a small nature the portion of fee generated by taking on Gadget Audit may exceed 10% of the practices annual income, hence over reliance to obtain the contract to act as auditors will have an adverse affect independence, as Gadget may go elsewhere.

Analyzing The Feminine Agenda In Plays English Literature Essay

Analyzing The Feminine Agenda In Plays English Literature Essay In the three dramas, Oedipus Rex, Death of a Salesman, and Macbeth the feminine characters craft their own personal agendas into the lives of the tragic heroes. Jocasta, Linda, and Lady Macbeth are all similar in their dynamic nature, ability to enable, and their need to care for others. The exploration of these similarities can also be considered the driving force which leads to each of the tragic heroes to their ultimate fates. This woman uses female methods of acquiring power- that is, manipulation- to further her supposed male ambition. The remarkable effectiveness of Lady Macbeths manipulation is apparent in several ways. She overrides all of his objections to the plot she construes. When Macbeth hesitates in murdering Duncan, Lady Macbeth persistently taunts his lack manhood and courage until he feels it necessary to prove himself. Interestingly, Lady Macbeth and her husband are presented as being deeply in love. However, many of Lady Macbeths speeches imply that her control over Macbeth is merely sexual. Lady Macbeths strong will persists throughout the murder of the king. Afterwards, however, she begins a slow slide into madness. Just as ambition affects her more so before the crime, so does the guilt afterwards. She falls victim to guilt and madness to a greater extent than her husband. The play implies that women can be as ambitious and cruel as men, but social constraints deny them the opportunitie s to pursue the ambition on their own. By the close of the play, Lady Macbeth has been reduced to sleepwalking and attempting to remove invisible bloodstains. When the plague of guilt has finally done its worse, Lady Macbeths sensitivity becomes her weakness. Subsequently, her husbands cruelty and her own guilt recoil on her, sending her into a madness which she is unable to cope with. In the end, she drives herself mad because of her guilt over the murders and she apparently kills herself. Linda Loman is Willys link to reality. She serves as a force of reason throughout the play. Linda is by far the toughest, most realistic, and most levelheaded character in the play. She sees what her husband is going through. Despite all of his failures and weaknesses, she supports him, loves him, and occasionally enables his behavior. Linda realizes that Willy is just an ordinary man living in the times, but she does not place blame on him. If anything, she loves him more because of it. Linda assumes the role of the protector, the defender, and the respecter. She protects Willy when Biff fights with him. Linda defends Willy to her sons who believe that he is going crazy. Also, she respects him enough to pretend that she is unaware of the fact that he is trying to kill himself and that he has lost his salary. She knows that Willy is suicidal, irrational, and difficult to deal with; however, she goes along with Willys fantasies in order to protect him from the criticism of others, as well as his own self-criticism. Linda tries to protect him, but her efforts are in vain. Linda enables Willy in many ways, but she also encourages him. She gently nudges him when it comes to paying the bills and communicating with Biff and she does not lose her temper when he becomes irate. Linda knows that Willy is secretly borrowing money from Charley to pay the life insurance and other bills. Despite all of this, Linda does nothing, afraid to aggravate Willys fragile mental condition. She goes as far as throwing Biff and Happy out of the house when their behavior threatens to upset Willy. Linda views freedom as an escape from debt, the reward of total ownership of the material goods that symbolize success and stability. Willys prolonged obsession with the American dream seems, over the long years of his marriage, to have left Linda internally conflicted. She appears to have kept her emotional life intact. As such, she represents the emotional core of the drama. Linda is a character driven by desperation and fear. Even though Willy is often rude to her, she protects him at all costs. According to Linda, Willy is only a little boat looking for a harbor (___________). She loves Willy, and more importantly, she accepts all of his shortcomings. Jocastas character is only strongly represented in the closing scenes in the play. Throughout the play, Jocasta tested the beliefs of those around her by feigning disbelief in the gods herself. Though she put up this false front, she did keep her faith. At the beginning of the scene wherein a messenger relayed word of Polybus death and Oedipus right to the throne of Corinth, we see Jocasta praying. In her first words, she attempts to make peace between Oedipus and Creon, pleading with Oedipus not Tiresiass terrifying prophecies as false. Unlike Oedipus, Jocasta distrusts the oracles and believes that whatever happens will do so by unforeseeable chance. However, she is still wary enough to honor Apollo with offerings in a crisis. Jocasta carries garlands and incense to the altar and tries to appeal to Apollo to purify the city of Thebes. Jocasta solves the riddle of Oedipuss identity before Oedipus does, and she expresses her love for her son and husband in her desire to protect him f rom this knowledge. She pleads with him to stop asking questions regarding the circumstances. Jocastas character is intelligent and capable, but not driven to exploration as Oedipus. She carries her own agenda about what should be known and looked into. Jocastas character is used by the gods, in a way, to test Oedipuss faith. After accusing Creon of conspiracy and treason, Oedipus relates to Jocasta the details of his meeting with Tiresias. Jocasta proceeds to plant doubts of the gods by telling Oedipus the story of the Delphian Oracle and the circumstances surrounding Laius death. Again, after Polybus death, she excitedly tells Oedipus that his prophecy was obviously untrue, though it was not, and by doing so she attempts to hint that the oracles and thus the gods are false. It can be drawn that Jocasta is forced to perform such tasks for the gods because she tried to avoid an earlier prophecy. By tying her childs feet together and casting him out, she attempted to defeat the gods, and this disbelief of course angered them. Her punishment, then, was to test the beliefs of the very child she cast out. Jocasta was, in this way, a victim. Though it was by her own doing that this penalty was cast upon her, it was not something she was happy to do, which becomes apparent when she realizes the truth in her earlier prophecy. It is at this moment that she becomes aware of her punishment, and in desperation kills herself. After the realization of the truth, Jocastas own panicked grief impels her to suicide. Jocasta is a victim in Oedipus Rex, but not as much as she is a catalyst for Oedipus own victimization. She keeps her faith throughout and tries to relieve Oedipus of his. Because of this, readers may in turn pity her and loathe her. But the gods tested the king of Thebes through her the main goal of the play and both he and she failed. In the exploration of Oedipus Rex, Death of a Salesman, and Macbeth the feminine characters obvious self-interest plays an important role in their counter parts downfalls. Jocasta, Linda, and Lady Macbeth are all similar in their dynamic nature, ability to enable, and their need to care for others. The previous exploration illustrates the female agenda in contrast to the tragic heroes.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Boy-Actresses and the Character of Rosalind in As You Like It :: Shakespeare As You Like It Essays

Boy-Actresses and the Character of Rosalind in As You Like It      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When Shakespeare wrote his plays, women were not permitted to perform on stage, so boys played all of the female characters.   Unlike many apprenticeships, a boy learning to become an actor had no set age at which to begin and no set length of how long to study, but they usually began around the age of ten and continued playing women or adolescent roles for about seven years.   These boys were apprenticed to a specific actor within an acting group, and were not attached to the organization as a whole.   There was a very strong teacher-pupil relationship between the adult actor and the boy, but there was also very often a father-son relationship.   The boys usually lived in the adult actors home with his family.   The idea of an apprentice is not difficult to imagine, but for many modern audiences, a boy playing the role of a women is very difficult to picture.   This picture is even more difficult to see when examining the plays of Shakespeare and the str ong female characters that he often depicts.   (Bentley 117)    In Shakespeare's As You Like It, Rosalind has many layers and acts as a character taking on many different roles.   The idea that there is a boy playing a woman disguised as a man pretending to be a woman for wooing, is one that is confusing and yet makes sense.   What adds to this is the idea that Rosalind, disguised as Ganymede, is pretending to be Rosalind, not another woman, but herself.   One can see that she occasionally slips from the role of Ganymede pretending, to being Rosalind, with comments such as "And I am your Rosalind" (Norton 4.1-56) and "By my life, she will do as I do" (Norton 4.1-135).   In these instances it is as though Rosalind forgets that she is disguised as a man, but what does this mean for the actor playing her character?   For one it shows that he must be clear as to which role of the character he was playing.   As one can imagine    "An audience would be confused unless the performer, regardless of gender, made it clear when Rosalind herself was speaking, when the character was speaking as Ganymede, and when Ganymede was the stereotyped 'Rosalind'"   (Shapiro 122).    This idea brings up the versatility that the boy must have had in order to play such a role.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Violent Video Games Increase Violent Behavior Essay -- Aggressive Beha

Violent video games have been known throughout the years to take a powerful effect on young children and their aggression and psychological behaviors as they habitually play these types of games. There are many factors leading the federal government to believe that the gaming industry and retailers are not taking a strong enough precaution to prevent this type problem from occurring. Studies show that laboratories and field settings have proven that violent video games cause increased aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Nothing is positive about the effects that violent video games have on children, but one positive factor has risen throughout the years. With all the tragedies and incidents involving the usage of violent video games by children, the United States Senate decided to take action. During a committee hearing, several researchers vouched for the negative effects violent video games were having on young children and young adults. Deadly school shootings like Columbine have been a serious problem in the United States for many years. Researchers and psychologist say that the young adults that partook in the Columbine shooting that killed 13 people and wounded 23 others before taking their own lives were habitual players of violent video games like Doom. Statistics show that many children between the ages of 8 and 18 years of age play video games or other types of media for 40 hours or more a week. (Rideout, Foehr, Roberts, and Brodie, 1999). Out of all the media used by children and young adults, television is the most widely used. Even with TV being the choice recreational activity, video games are rapidly creeping in popularity. Console video game systems like XBOX and Playstation along with com... ...gical Science Agenda (2003). "Violent Video Games, Myths, Facts, and Unanswered Questions". Anderson, A. Craig, & Bushman, J. Brad. Iowa State University (September 2001). General Article. "Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Effect, Psychological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature", Vol. 12, No. 5. Schwarzenegger, Arnold, & Morazzini, P. Zachary. (December 2010). Supreme Court Debates. "Is the California Ban on the Sale of Violent Video Games to Minors Constitutional?", Vol. 13, Issue 9, p15-26, 12p.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

XML: Extensible Markup Language Essay -- Essays Papers

XML: Extensible Markup Language The World Wide Web is in the process of undergoing a radical change that allows new services and opportunities to businesses and individuals. HTML - the HyperText Markup Language - is a language that is predominately used to generate most of the web sites available today. Now, however, Extensible Markup Language is in the process of replacing HyperText Markup Language as the most favored format. Extensible Markup Language will allow the use and functionality of the web to continue to expand. Extensible Markup Language is based on Standard Generalized Markup Language. First, what is Standard Generalized Markup Language? Both HTML (HyperText Markup Language) and XML (Extensible Markup Language) are based on SGML - Standard Generalized Markup Language. Standard Generalized Markup Language has been an international standard since 1986 (ISO 8879). It is a meta-language, which simply means that it can be used to create other languages. Standard Generalized Markup Language is a descendent from earlier markup languages first developed at IBM as early as 1969. The oldest direct ancestor is GML, which both stands for General Markup Language and contains the initials of the IBM researchers who created it: Charles F. Goldfarb, Edward Mosher, and Raymond Lorie. Standard Generalized Markup Language is a far more extensive markup language than Extensible Markup Language or HyperText Markup Language, and to this day remains as the ultimate language in the field. The ultimate goal and success of Standard Generalized Markup Language is that it conquered the computer-age old problem of being able to communicate across different computer platforms. It allows computers to share and communicate data regardless of the computer’s hardware, operating system, or software applications being used. Applications such as AdobeïÆ'’ FramemakerïÆ'’ use it for desktop publishing. But, in general, Standard Generalized Markup Language is considered much too complex for widespread e-business and other similar applications. A need for a new language to handle the new demands of the e-business world became clear. The designers of Extensible Markup Language were looking to generate a markup language that would allow the functionality of Standard Generaliz ed Markup Language without the complexity. By strategically omitting large chunks of St... ...p Language. The difference in quality will be enormous. It is also estimated that beyond the web, Extensible Markup Language will be felt along the lines of standardization of data interchange formats. In other words, in the effort to standardize data names in like areas of business, the same standardization could be used worldwide for applications outside of Extensible Markup Language’s spectrum. Extensible Markup Language could improve efficiency in all respects of data exchange. With companies like Microsoft, IBM, Dow Chemical Co., DuPont, BASF, and a plethora of others working together to develop standards, the future of Extensible Markup Language and data interchange is bright! Bibliography Goldfarb, Charles F. â€Å"XML in an Instant: A Non-geeky Introduction.† Oasis. October 1999. Gonsalves, Antone. â€Å"XML Translation Wares Are On The Way.† eWEEK. January 2000. Halfhill, Tom. â€Å"XML: The Next Big Thing.† IBM Research Magazine. October 2000. Rohan, Rebecca. â€Å"New Wild Life In The XML Menagerie.† Sm@rt Partner. February 2000. Schindler, Esther. â€Å"Exposing XML Myths.† Sm@rt Partner. May 2000. Walsh, Jeff. â€Å"XML: Not Just for the Web Anymore.† InfoWorld. June 1998.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Last Sacrifice Chapter Twenty-two

â€Å"YOU'RE AWFULLY HAPPY.' I blinked and found Sonya staring at me. The CR-V and smooth stretch of I-75 hummed around us, the outside revealing little except Midwestern plains and trees. Sonya didn't seem quite as creepy crazy as she had back at school or even at her house. Mostly, she still just seemed scattered and confused, which was to be expected. I hesitated before answering but finally decided there was no reason to hold back. â€Å"Lissa passed her second monarch test.' â€Å"Of course she did,' said Victor. He was staring out the window away from me. The tone of his voice suggested I'd just wasted his time by saying something that was a given. â€Å"Is she okay?' asked Dimitri. â€Å"Injured?' Once, that would have sparked jealousy in me. Now, it was just a sign of our shared concern for Lissa. â€Å"She's fine,' I said, wondering if that was entirely true. She wasn't physically injured, but after what she'd seen †¦ well, that had to leave scars of a different type. The back door had been quite a surprise too. When she'd seen a small crowd by the first door, she'd thought it meant only a few people were up that late to see the candidates. Nope. Turned out everyone was just waiting out back to see the victors. True to her promise, Lissa hadn't let it faze her. She walked out with her head held high, smiling at her onlookers and fans as though she already owned the crown. I was growing sleepy but Lissa's triumph kept me smiling for a long time. There's something tiring about an endless, unknown stretch of highway. Victor had closed his eyes and was leaning against the glass. I couldn't see Sydney when I twisted around to check on her, meaning she also had decided on a nap or was just lying down. I yawned, wondering if I dared risk sleeping. Dimitri had urged me to when we left Sonya's house, knowing that I could use more than the couple hours Sydney had given me. I tipped my head against the seat and closed my eyes, falling instantly asleep. The blackness of that sleep gave way to the feel of a spirit dream, and my heart leapt with both panic and joy. After living through Lissa's test, spirit dreams suddenly had a sinister feel. At the same time, this might be a chance to see Adrian. And †¦ it was. Only we appeared somewhere entirely unexpected: Sonya's garden. I stared in wonder at the clear blue sky and the brilliant flowers, nearly overlooking Adrian in the process. He wore a dark green cashmere sweater that made him blend in. To me, he was more gorgeous than any of the garden's other wonders. â€Å"Adrian!' I ran to him, and he lifted me easily, spinning me around. When he placed me back on my feet, he studied the garden and nodded in approval. â€Å"I should let you pick the place more often. You have good taste. Of course, since you're dating me, we already knew that.' â€Å"What do you mean, â€Å"pick the place?† I asked, lacing my hands behind his neck. He shrugged. â€Å"When I reached out and sensed you were sleeping, I summoned the dream but didn't feel like thinking up a place. So I left it to your subconscious.' Irritably, he plucked at the cashmere. â€Å"I'm not dressed for the occasion, though.' The sweater shimmered, soon replaced by a light gray T-shirt with an abstract design on the front. â€Å"Better?' â€Å"Much.' He grinned and kissed the top of my forehead. â€Å"I've missed you, little dhampir. You can spy on Lissa and us all the time, but the best I get are these dreams, and honestly, I can't figure out what schedule you're on.' I realized that with my â€Å"spying,' I knew more about what had just happened at Court than he did. â€Å"Lissa took her second test,' I told him. Yup. His expression verified it. He hadn't known about the test, probably because he'd been sleeping. â€Å"When?' â€Å"Just now. It was a tough one, but she passed.' â€Å"Much to her delight, no doubt. Still †¦ that keeps buying us time to clear you and get you home. Not sure I'd want to come home if I were you, though.' He looked around the garden again. â€Å"West Virginia's a lot better than I thought.' I laughed. â€Å"It's not West Virginia–which isn't that bad, by the way. It's Sonya Karp's– ‘ I froze, unable to believe what I'd nearly said. I'd been so happy to see him, so at ease †¦ I'd let myself screw up. Adrian's face grew very, very serious. â€Å"Did you say Sonya Karp?' Several options played out in my head. Lying was the easiest. I could claim this was some place I'd been a long time ago, like maybe she'd taken us on a field trip to her house. That was pretty flimsy, though. Plus, I was guessing the look on my face screamed guilt. I'd been caught. A pretty lie wouldn't fool Adrian. â€Å"Yes,' I said finally. â€Å"Rose. Sonya Karp's a Strigoi.' â€Å"Not anymore.' Adrian sighed. â€Å"I knew you staying out of trouble was too good to be true. What happened?' â€Å"Um, Robert Doru restored her.' â€Å"Robert.' Adrian's lip curled in disdain. The two spirit users hadn't gotten along well. â€Å"And just because I feel like we're marching into full-fledged Crazy Territory–which means something, coming from me–I'm going to take a guess that Victor Dashkov is also with you.' I nodded, wishing desperately then that someone would wake me up and get me away from Adrian's interrogation. Damn it. How could I have slipped up like this? Adrian released me and walked around in small circles. â€Å"Okay, so. You, Belikov, the Alchemist, Sonya Karp, Victor Dashkov, and Robert Doru are all hanging out in West Virginia together.' â€Å"No,' I said. â€Å"No?' â€Å"We're, uh, not in West Virginia.' â€Å"Rose!' Adrian halted his pacing and strode back over to me. â€Å"Where the hell are you then? Your old man, Lissa–everyone thinks you're safe and sound.' â€Å"I am,' I said haughtily. â€Å"Just not in West Virginia.' â€Å"Then where?' â€Å"I can't †¦ I can't tell you.' I hated saying those words to him and seeing the look they elicited. â€Å"Part of it's for safety. Part of it's because †¦ well, um, I don't actually know.' He caught hold of my hands. â€Å"You can't do this. You can't run off on some crazy whim this time. Don't you get it? They'll kill you if they find you.' â€Å"It's not a crazy whim! We're doing something important. Something that's going to help all of us.' â€Å"Something you can't tell me,' he guessed. â€Å"It's better if you're not involved,' I said, squeezing his hands tightly. â€Å"Better if you don't know the details.' â€Å"And in the meantime, I can rest easy knowing you've got an elite team at your back.' â€Å"Adrian, please! Please just trust me. Trust that I've got a good reason,' I begged. He let go of my hands. â€Å"I believe you think you've got a good reason. I just can't imagine one that justifies you risking your life.' â€Å"It's what I do,' I said, surprised at how serious I sounded. â€Å"Some things are worth it.' Pieces of static flickered across my vision, like TV reception going bad. The world started to fade. â€Å"What's going on?' I asked. He scowled. â€Å"Someone or something's waking me up. Probably my mom checking in for the hundredth time.' I reached for him, but he was fading away. â€Å"Adrian! Please don't tell anyone! Anyone.' I don't know if he heard my pleas or not because the dream completely disappeared. I woke up in the car. My immediate reaction was to swear, but I didn't want to give away the idiotic thing I'd done. Glancing over, I nearly jumped out of my seat when I saw Sonya watching me intently. â€Å"You were having a spirit dream,' she said. â€Å"How'd you know?' â€Å"Your aura.' I made a face. â€Å"Auras used to be cool, but now they're just starting to get annoying.' She laughed softly, the first time I'd heard her do so since being restored. â€Å"They're very informative if you know how to read them. Were you with Vasilisa?' â€Å"No. My boyfriend. He's a spirit user too.' Her eyes widened in surprise. â€Å"That's who you were with?' â€Å"Yeah. Why? What's wrong?' She frowned, looking puzzled. A few moments later, she glanced up toward the front seat, where Dimitri and Robert sat, and then studied me in a scrutinizing way that sent chills down my spine. â€Å"Nothing,' she said. â€Å"Nothing's wrong.' I had to scoff at that. â€Å"Come on, it sure seemed like–‘ â€Å"There!' Sonya abruptly turned from me, leaned forward, and pointed. â€Å"Take that exit.' We were nearly past â€Å"that exit,' and Dimitri had to do some fancy maneuvering–kind of like in our escape back in Pennsylvania–to make it. The car jerked and lurched, and I heard Sydney yelp behind me. â€Å"A little warning next time would be helpful,' Dimitri noted. Sonya wasn't listening. Her gaze was totally fixated on the road we'd pulled off onto. We came to a red light, where I caught sight of a cheery sign: WELCOME TO ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN. The spark of life I'd seen in her moments ago was gone. Sonya had returned to her tense, almost robotic self. Despite Sydney's clever negotiating, Sonya still seemed uncomfortable about this trip. She still felt guilty and traitorous. â€Å"Are we here?' I asked eagerly. â€Å"And how long were we on the road?' I'd hardly noticed the drive. I'd stayed awake for the first part of it, but the rest had been a blur of Lissa and Adrian. â€Å"Six hours,' said Dimitri. â€Å"Go left at that second light,' said Sonya. â€Å"Now right at the corner.' Tension built in the car. Everyone was awake now, and my heart raced as we pushed deeper and deeper into suburbia. Which house? Were we close? Was one of these it? It was a fast drive but seemed to stretch forever. We all let out a collective breath when Sonya suddenly pointed. â€Å"There.' Dimitri pulled into the driveway of a cute brick house with a perfectly trimmed lawn. â€Å"Do you know if your relatives still live here?' I asked Sonya. She said nothing, and I realized we were back to promise territory. Lockdown mode. So much for progress. â€Å"I guess there's only one way to find out,' I said, unbuckling my seatbelt. â€Å"Same plan?' Earlier, Dimitri and I had discussed who would go and who would stay behind if Sonya got us to the right place. Leaving the brothers behind was a no-brainer. The question had been who would guard them, and we'd decided Dimitri would while Sydney and I went with Sonya to meet her relatives–who were undoubtedly in for a shocking visit. â€Å"Same plan,' agreed Dimitri. â€Å"You go to the house. You look less threatening.' â€Å"Hey!' He smiled. â€Å"I said â€Å"look.† But his reasoning made sense. Even at ease, there was something powerful and intimidating about Dimitri. Three women going up to the door would freak these people out less–especially if it turned out Sonya's relatives had moved. Hell, for all I knew, she'd purposely led us to the wrong house. â€Å"Be careful,' Dimitri said, as we got out of the car. â€Å"You too,' I replied. That got me another smile, one a little warmer and deeper. The feelings that stirred in me flitted away as Sonya, Sydney, and I walked up the sidewalk. My chest tightened. This was it. Or was it? Were we about to reach the conclusion of our journey? Had we really found the last Dragomir, against all odds? Or had I been played from the beginning? I wasn't the only one who was nervous. I could feel Sydney and Sonya crackling with tension too. We reached the front step. I took a deep breath and rang the doorbell. Several seconds later, a man answered–and he was Moroi. A promising sign. He looked at each of our faces, no doubt wondering what a Moroi, a dhampir, and a human were doing at his door. It sounded like the start of a bad joke. â€Å"Can I help you?' he asked. I was suddenly at a loss. Our plan had covered the big stuff: find Eric's mistress and love child. What we'd say once we actually got there wasn't so clear. I waited for one of my companions to speak up now, but there was no need. The Moroi man's head suddenly whipped to my side as he did a double take. â€Å"Sonya?' he gasped. â€Å"Is that you?' Then, I heard a young female voice behind him call, â€Å"Hey, who's here?' Someone squeezed in beside him, someone tall and slim–someone I knew. My breath caught as I stared at waves of unruly light brown hair and light green eyes–eyes that should have tipped me off a long time ago. I couldn't speak. â€Å"Rose,' exclaimed Jill Mastrano. â€Å"What are you doing here?'

Friday, August 16, 2019

The Global Oil and Gas Industry Essay

Oil industry is a very complicated industry. Oil is very valuable and needed in every aspect of life. The world economy depends on entirely. This industry has gone through many challenges in history. It began as early as 15th century. During early years, there were firms that specialized in producing, refining and selling the oil products. These firms enjoyed monopoly. Later on, states decided to take ownership of the oil fields. The oil supply chain is composed of three levels. There is upstream that is involved with the exploration and production of oil. There is midstream that is involved with storage and transport of the crude oil. Then there is downstream that is concerned with refining the crude oil into its constituents and then distributing them o the consumers. At all these levels, many actors are involved.The key actors are the government and the oil companies. The three main types of oil companies are the integrated oil companies, the national oil companies and the indepen dent companies. Politics has a direct effect on the oil supply chain. Wars also impact the oil industry negatively. Key words: Oil Industry, world economy, oil supply chain, actors in the oil industry, politics and war, Oil is a very crucial resource in the world (Inkpen, 2010, 1). Undoubtedly, it is the only resource that runs the world economy according to Inkpen (2010, 3). There is no economic activity that would run without it. Consider transporting of goods and services from one place to another. Oil must be available for the transport to take place. Consider the heavy machines that are used in factories in the process of manufacturing of products for sale. It is a fact that all these machines would stop running in the absence of oil. It is sensible to state that there is nothing that can remain stable in the absence of oil. In other words, the whole world would literally come to a standstill without oil. In other words, because of its importance, the entire world is affected by anything that concerns oil. In the oil supply chain, main actors play a part. These actors are encountered from the point of oil exploration to the point of oil processing and consumption. They control many aspects of the oil. Besides, they make important decisions regarding oil. Their decisions have far reaching consequences even at the level of the consumer. Historically, oil resource has been subjected to stringent control by these powerful actors. In this paper, the historical background that surrounds actors in the oil supply chain as well as the future of the oil industry is brought to light. History             Oil has been used over a longlong time. It started being used in 15th century. Its management has undergone numerous changes over time. Initially, oil sector all the way from exploration to processing was done privately by companies. Slowly by slowly, the national government started getting engaged in the matters of the oil sector and taking a share of ownership of the sector. Presently, national governments have taken over the control of oil resource. Oil fields have been classified as sate resource and, therefore, should benefit the government. It is worth noting that the struggle to achieve the principle of state power over the oil resources has not been a simple one. In Mexico, the state managed to claim state ownership of oil fields in 1917. In addition, it was able to gain autonomous control over the same in 1938. The UK prepared an Act called Petroleum Act of 1934. It is this Act that provided the guidelines for reclaiming oil resources into state ownership .However, in the US, the process of converting oil fields into state owned resources has been slow. In the recent past, the state allowed private individuals to have absolute control over the oil fields if they were within their territory. The state only owned what was present in the federal land. Nevertheless, this has changed because as at present, the state has taken over the ownership of oil fields and converted them to state properties. Ownership of oil fields notwithstanding, transport, distribution and processing of oil has undergone tremendous changes. Strong organizations have come up to control the entire supply chain of the oils. In simple terms, production and supply of oil has created a very sophisticated network. Political shades also crown the industry. Powerful actors control this fundamental resource. Therefore, oil industry is a very dynamic industry (Inkpen, 2010, 1). Actors in the Oil Industry             There are many actors in the oil industry. These actors are responsible for everything that happens in the oil industry. They are in charge of oil exploration, oil excavation, distribution and even refining before reaching the final consumer. It is important to state that the same actors also are involved in setting up prices for the oils. They control the volume of supply as well as its reliability. They dominate the upstream, the midstream and the downstream of the supply chain. At the upstream, the activities taking place are exploration and production of the oil. At the midstream level, the main activities taking place are storage and transportation of the oil. The downstream level of the supply chain is characterized by refining of the oil, distribution and consumption. The actors are mainly the states and powerful firms. These actors are powerful and the decisions that they make have far reaching consequences. They include the states that exercise their powe r as landlords of the oil resources in the nations that produce it, as champions and as regulators. They mostly dominate the upstream level of oil supply chain. Firms play a part in the integration of the oil resources. Usually, they are created by the oil producing state or states that are main importers of oil. They can also be formed by representatives from several states that share a common element such as oil production. Firms mostly dominate the midstream level of oil supply chain where they exercise their power on the storage and transport of crude oil. They also exercise power at the downstream level where they control refining processes, distribution and prices for the end consumer. In short, the oil supply chain is a very complicated network. This network has brought nations together because of shared common goals. In the subsequent paragraphs, each actor in the oil supply chain is analyzed and its impact in the supply chain assessed. States as oil landlords             It has already been stated that national governments are in control of oil resources. These states are especially those which are principle producers of oil. Some of the states that have autonomy in the oil sector are UK, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Mexico among others. These states are interested in generating revenues for the government. They set conditions under which the firms that will operate within their territory abide to. For instance, in the UK, the national government, through the Crown, issues licenses to firms that are interested in the search and production of oil and gas. The state has absolute power in deciding who to access the oil resources with regard to domestic and foreign firms. Political dimensions and considerations have a great role to play. The state also gives directions on which resources are available and which should not be accessed. In addition, the state determines the impact of resource extraction to the environment and gives an appro priate direction. It has the power to halt a process that has already begun if it is deemed that the negative impact in the environment cannot be controlled. It is also the role of the state to determine what the government stands to gain in any deal with a firm. It also champions local employment. In a nutshell, oil resources in the world within national territories are subjected to national political considerations in that nation. Therefore, oil firms have to contend and sing to the tune of the oil-producing states. Similarly, states that import the oil must create a good rapport with the exporting state in the political sense. States as national champions             States also participate in National Oil Corporations as investors. Most of the top class oil companies are owned by state. These national oil companies dominate the world oil reserves and production. They are involved in determining the volume of oil production by the state. States opted to getting involved in the oil companies in order to make their oil companies have a superior bargaining power internationally. For example, in the Middle East, the government found it necessary to participate actively in the oil companies in order to survive in the international competition by the international companies. In 1972, Iraq made Iraq oil company a national company. Moreover, OPEC ruled that the governments in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and UAE should have at least 25% share in the oil companies. With time, the shares rose and by around 1980, they were 100% (meaning that the national government had taken over the oil company). These are just a few examples to show how states have decided to dominate the oil sector at all points. As far as exporting is concerned, national oil companies have a greater bargaining power. They can also access a wider market than private companies. Thus, it is to the benefit of the exporting country to consider nationalizing oil companies. In addition, states that import oil have national oil companies. Nations like South Korea, India and China have expanded their national oil companies overseas so that they can have access to the oil reserves easily. It is important to note that national oil companies in the importing states have an upper hand when it comes to striking deals with the exporting states. Hence, there is every need for these national oil companies. The deals that are struck at the level of national oil companies are very strong. Furthermore, nationalizing oil companies has helped stop unhealthy competitions among the oil companies. States as regulators             States also play a role as regulators in the oil sector. They set and impose conditions regarding oil production as well as consumption. It is the duty of the government to ensure that oil production does not compromise the environment to the extent that the lives of the people are endangered. For instance, pollution should be kept in check at all cost in the course of production. Furthermore, the rights of the consumer should not be compromised. The government should not watch passively as consumers get exploited by the business people. Moreover, the state imposes taxation on the oil products hence influencing the prices of these products. This way, the government can get revenue from the sales of the oil products. Through taxation, the state regulates the rate of oil consumption. The state also sets regulations and conditions that are meant to protect the rights of the workers. This is a fundamental role of any caring government. Its people should be respected. These conditions are imposed on the firms that are operating within the borders of the state. In short, the government sets out conditions on whether a firm will set out to explore for oil and under which conditions. This influence on the production of oil gives the state an upper hand in as far as its oil resources are concerned. Coupled with political objectives, the state can impose restrictions on the oil companies operating both within the boundaries and overseas. For instance, the US government suspended all dealings with Libya until 2004 over allegations to links to terrorism. Therefore, oil companies in the US could not operate at all in Libya. Similarly, the US government has restricted any of its companies from dealing with Sudan. The Major Industry Players Integrated Oil Companies             Integration is very important in the oil sector. One of its key benefits is to ensure uninterrupted oil supply (Inkpen, 2010, 5). Also integration reduces price fluctuations. The reason for this is that integration helps companies achieve economies of scale and attain geographical diversification. The economy of scale is achieved since there is less competition. Also the market is favorable. In addition, there are fewer fluctuations in prices and this makes the firms stable. They can make better predictions and forecasts in the market. Without the integration, there would be stiff competition that would drive some companies out of market. Geographical diversification is looked at in two aspects. First, the sources of oil are diverse. That means that there are numerous geographical locations where oil is sourced. Integration makes it easy to aces all the locations. Secondly, the consumers of the oil are diversified in terms of geographical location. Integration mak es it easy to reach all these customers. Firms like Exxon, Shell and Total have made their mark in the world. Others are BP, Chevron, ConocoPhilips and ENI. Together, they are referred to as the â€Å"Seven Sister†. They are among the largest world’s companies. They are the largest in terms of both capitalization and array of products that they produce. These firms have direct control at the upstream level and the downstream level of the oil supply chain. They have too much of influence regarding the oil prices. Nationalization of the upstream sectors of oil supply chain curtailed their influence at that level. However, their dominance downstream has not been shaken. Besides these giants in the oil industry, state-owned companies also play a part in the network. They are large companies that are involved with the production, refinery and sales. Their strength is measured in terms of the refinery capacity and the volume of sales. These firms are, therefore, critical in the oil supply chain. National Oil Companies             These are new in the industry according to Inkpen (2010, 7). They have taken over the oil market and grown in leaps and bounds. They are ranking in top ten in the oil sector. These companies have the support of the government. They are not affected by the local politics. In addition, they are getting priority when it comes to carrying out explorations, production and distribution of oil products in the country. They also enjoy an upper hand in negotiations. Upstream independents             This is another category of actors that are involved in the oil industry as part of the oil supply chain. They are referred to as upstream independents because they do not own any assets downstream (Inkpen, 2010, 8). They are concentrated at the production level and their work ends there. These actors have helped remove the monopoly of the oil industry giants. In addition, due to their activeness, they have led to increased oil production. They have explored more and more sources of oil. These are actors that are actively involved in exploration of oil in Africa. For example, Tullow Oil is one of the largest oil companies that is independent working in Africa. The US government is strongly encouraging these independent companies to continue with their work because they are helping increase the world oil capacity. With the increase in the oil volume, the prices of the oil products remain low and the consumer can access it affordably. It is important to state that t he independent oil companies are gaining ground so fast at the upstream level. It appears that in the near future, explorations and production of the oil may be their domain. The consumer will benefit with an increase in the oil production because not only will it be affordable, both frequent oil crisis will be a thing of the past. Oil crisis causes escalation of the prices of all other products even those which are basic for human survival. However, the independent oil companies may not compete favorably with the state-owned companies due to capital restrictions. Nevertheless, their impact is being felt. Their contribution in the oil industry cannot be underestimated. Problems facing the giant oil companies             There are two major problems facing the giant oil firms. First, they are finding it difficult to survive in the prevailing conditions. The emergence of companies that are owned by the state has been a great blow to them. These companies that are owned by the state are given exclusive rights by the state in terms of exploration and production of oil as well as getting support to carry out downstream activities which include refinery and distribution. They are financially stable. They are not affected adversely by the political objectives. The second problem is that the giant firms are losing grounds to the independent companies’ oil production. Since these firms had heavily invested in the oil production sector, they are presently running into losses. For any oil company to stand firm in the oil industry, it must have ability to locate new oil reserves. New oil reserves serve to replace the exhausted oil reserves that have been used in the previous production. The ability of the company, whether integrated or independent, to acquire new reserves is a measure of its commercial strength. For the integrated firms, this ability has diminished. The fact that there are restrictions imposed by the states on foreign firms accessing their oil reserves makesit even harder for the integrated oil firms to replace their reserves. If the problem persists, it can reach a point that the firms can run out of business. Political dimensions also limit the ability of the integrated firms in acquiring new reserves. It is within the mandateof the state to control the firm’s activities within its territory. Therefore, state control, coupled with the domestic political atmosphere reduces the ability of the foreign integrated oil firms to grow. The se problems are likely to persist into the future and these giant oil firms are likely to surrender. The role of politics in the oil sector             Accessing oil reserves in another country is not an easy task. The National Oil Corporations, the integrated firms as well as the independent firm need to negotiate with the state from which they want to access the oil resources. The negotiations are to do with the terms and conditions of the access. Politics is at the core in these negotiations. Economic power of the firm is assessed in order to gauge the negotiation atmosphere. The state that has the resource plays hard to grant access to the foreign firms. Politics surrounds the negotiations. As the states restrict equity participation by firms that are foreign, the integrated firms and the National Oil Corporations are left with no choice but surrender. Oil sector and wars             Oil is a very precious commodity. It is an expensive commodity by the same measure. The reason why this is so is its scarcity. It is limited to some areas and absent in others. Those that are privileged to have this resource enjoy its benefits. Those that lack it remain to covet. Judging by its value, oil runs the economy of the world. There has been a series of wars intimated to be due to oil resources. In Nigeria, there was a civil war that was threatening to tear the country apart. The reason for the war was emanating from the poor management of the oil resources by this country. Sudan has already split into two nations. Currently, there is South Sudan and Sudan. The split resulted from an unending war due to oil resource that is in the country. Surprisingly, even after the split, the two nations are in quarrels. In Nigeria, the civil war that broke out in 1967 disrupted oil production greatly. The struggle was aimed at forcing Nigeria to acquire equity stakes in the foreign companies, such as Shell, that operated in Nigeria. Nigeria has achieved this goal but has not gained absolute control of the operations (Frynas and Mellahi, 2003, 8-11). These are a few illustrations to demonstrate that oil has been the cause of both civil and even international wars. Future of the Oil Industry             There are advancements that are taking place in the oil sector. New discoveries of oil reserves are making the sector thrive. However, as many oil reserves become available, the prices of the oil products will be going down. This will benefit the consumers. The producers of the oil will suffer losses due to low prices. It is a bitter truth on the side of the nations that rely on oil but good news to the consumers. There are negotiations that are being carried out between states. These negotiations are among the members of OPEC. They are looking for a solution to the decreasing oil prices. One of the options they are thinking of using is decreasing the amount of oil being produced in their countries. However, this is unlikely to happen because not all countries can agree to limit the quantity of oil produced. In addition, mergers and acquisitions are taking shape in the oil industry (Inkpen, 2010, 15).increased advancements in the technology make exploration and pr oduction of oil easier and faster according to Inkpen (2010, 15). Finally, advent of new and alternative sources on energy may reduce the dependence that is put on the oil as a source of energy. The national oil companies are likely to expand more. As the reserves get exhausted, it is likely to be harder in the future to do exploration (Inkpen, 2010, 17). Conclusion             Oil supply chain is a very sophisticated network. Many actors are involved in the activities that regard oil supply chain. The supply chain has three levels which include the upstream, the midstream and the downstream. At each level, there are many actors in charge. For a long time, integrated firms had had absolute control on all the aspects of the oil sector. Lately, National Oil Corporations that are supported by the states have emerged. These are becoming stronger than the integrated firms in the control of the oil production, refinery and distribution to the consumers. Besides, states have come out strongly to control this valuable commodity. First, the states have emerged as landlords and, therefore, owners of the oil resources. Secondly, they have emerged as the champions in the business taking part in the production and distribution of the oil products through National Oil Corporations. Thirdly, they have come out as regulators of the oil firms. They make conditions to be followed by the firms that work within their boundaries. The future of the oil sector is encouraging as more oil fields are being discovered by independent firms. References Frynas,  J.  G., &Mellahi,  K. (2003). Political risks as firm-specific (dis)advantages: Evidence on transnational oil firms in Nigeria. Thunderbird International Business Review. Inken. (2010). The Global Oil and Gas Industry. Bridge-Le Billion.(2012). Oil Capture. Flatau,  J. (2007). Supply chain analysis of olive oil in Germany. Giessen: ZEU. Groznik,  A., &Trkman,  P. (January 01, 2006 A case study of supply chain management in oil industry.).Iti 2006.. New York. Hull,  B. (2002). A structure for supply-chain information flows and its application to the Alaskan crude oil supply chain. Logistics Information Management.doi:10.1108/09576050210412639 Laftah,  Z., Aziz,  T.  Z., &Bogle,  I.  D. (2007).Identifying added value in integrated oil supply chain companies – a case study.doi:10.1016/S1570-7946(07)80151-9 Kaufmann,  R.  K., Dees,  S., & Mann,  M. (2009). Horizontal and vertical transmissions in the US oil supply chain. Energy Policy. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.052 Source document