Thursday, December 26, 2019
Judith of France (843/844Ã¢â¬â870), also known as Judith of Flanders,Ã was married to two Saxon English kings, first the father and then the son. She was also both stepmother and sister-in-law of Alfred the Great. Her son from her third marriage married into the Anglo-Saxon royal line, and his descendant Matilda of Flanders married William the Conqueror.Ã Her consecration ceremony set a standard for later wives of kings in England. Fast Facts: Judith of France Known For: First woman to be crowned Queen of England; daughter of the King of France; grandmother of Matilda of Flanders, wife of William the ConquerorBorn: October 843 or 844 in Orleans, FranceParents: Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of OrlÃ ©ansDied: April 870 in Burgundy, FranceSpouse(s): Saxon king of the West Saxons, Aethelwulf of Wessex (m. October 1, 856Ã¢â¬â858); Aethelbald of Wessex (m. 858Ã¢â¬â860); Baldwin I, Count of Flanders (m. 861Ã¢â¬â870)Children: Charles (b. 864); Baldwin II (865Ã¢â¬â918); Raoul, Count of Cambrai (867Ã¢â¬â896); Gunhilde (b. 870), all children with Baldwin I Early Life Judith of France was born in October 843 or 844, the daughter of the Carolingian king of West Francia, known as Charles the Bald, and his wife Ermentrude of OrlÃ ©ans, daughter of Odo, Count of Orleans and Engeltrude. The Saxon king of the West Saxons, Aethelwulf, left his son Aethelbald to manage Wessex and traveled to Rome on pilgrimage. A younger son Aethelbehrt was made the king of Kent during his absence. Aethelwulfs youngest son Alfred may have accompanied his father to Rome. Aethelwulfs first wife (and mother of his children including five sons) was Osburh; its not known if she had died or was simply cast aside when Aethelwulf negotiated a more important marriage alliance. Returning from Rome, Aethelwulf stayed in France with Charles for some months. There, he was betrothed in July 856 to Charles daughter Judith, who was about 13 years old. Judith Crowned Queen Aethelwulf and Judith returned to his land; they were married on October 1, 856. A consecration ceremony gave Judith the title of queen, making her the first crowned queen of England. Apparently, Charles had won from Aethelwulf a promise that Judith would be crowned queen upon their marriage; earlier wives of Saxon kings were known quite simply as the kings wife rather than carrying a royal title of their own. Two generations later, the queens consecration was made standard liturgy in the church. Aethelbald revolted against his father, perhaps fearful that Judiths children would displace him as his fathers heir, or perhaps just to keep his father from taking control of Wessex again. Aethelbalds allies in the rebellion included the bishop of Sherborne and others. Aethelwulf pacified his son by giving him control of the western part of Wessex. Second Marriage Aethelwulf did not live long after his marriage to Judith, and they did not have children. He died in 858, and his eldest son Aethelbald took over all of Wessex. He also married his fathers widow, Judith, probably in recognition of the prestige of being married to a daughter of the powerful French king. The church condemned the marriage as incestuous, and it was annulled in 860. That same year, Aethelbald died. Now about 16 or 17 years old and childless, Judith sold all of her lands in England and returned to France, while Aethelwulfs sons Aethelbehrt and then Albert, in turn, succeeded Aethelbald. Count Baldwin I Her father, perhaps hoping to find another marriage for her, confined her to a convent. But Judith escaped the convent in about 861 by eloping with a man named Baldwin, apparently with the help of her brother Louis. They took refuge in a monastery at Senlis, where they were likely married. Judiths father Charles was quite angry over this turn of events and got the pope to excommunicate the pair for their action. The couple escaped to Lotharingia and may also have had help from the Viking Rorik. They then appealed to Pope Nicholas I in Rome for help. The Pope interceded with Charles for the couple, who finally reconciled himself to the marriage. King Charles finally gave his son-in-law some land and charged him with dealing with Viking attacks in that areaÃ¢â¬âattacks that, if unchallenged, might threaten the Franks. Some scholars have suggested that Charles had hope that Baldwin would be killed in this effort, but Baldwin was successful. The area, first called the March of Baldwin, became known as Flanders. Charles the Bald created the title, Count of Flanders, for Baldwin. Judith had several children with Baldwin I, Count of Flanders. One son Charles (b. 864), did not survive to adulthood. Another son named Baldwin (865Ã¢â¬â918), became Baldwin II, Count of Flanders; and a third, Raoul (or Rodulf, 867Ã¢â¬â896), was the Count of Cambrai. A daughter Gunhilde, born about 870, married Guifre I Count of Barcelona. Death and Legacy JudithÃ died in about 870, a few years before her father became Holy Roman Emperor. Her significance to the British crown, however, lasted for generations. Judiths genealogy has some important links in British royal history. Sometime between 893 and 899, Baldwin II married Aelfthryth, daughter of the Saxon king Alfred the Great, who was a brother of Judiths second husband and the son of her first husband. One descendant, the daughter of Count Baldwin IV, married Tostig Godwineson, brother of King Harold Godwineson, the last crowned Saxon king of England. More importantly, another descendant of Judiths son Baldwin II and his wife Aelfthryth was Matilda of Flanders. She married William the Conqueror, the first Norman king of England, and with that marriage and their children and heirs, brought the heritage of the Saxon kings into the Norman royal line. Sources Drake, Terry W. The History of the Drake Family and the Times They Lived. Xlibris, 2013.Geary, Patrick J. Women in the Beginning: Origin Myths from the Amazons to the Virgin Mary. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.Oksanen, Eljas. Flanders and the Anglo-Norman World, 1066Ã¢â¬â1216. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Ã Ward, Jennifer. Women in England in the Middle Ages. London: Hambledon Continuum, 2006.
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Why is Customer experience is at the Heart of Digital Transformation? Hook: With the age of the customer upon us, how can businesses provide a frictionless customer experience? One of the major benefits of the digital transformation is the ability for businesses to achieve a much closer relationship with the customer. Businesses must make critical adjustments to their customer experiences that align with the digital shift to remain relevant in the eyes of the customers, partners and employees. 451 Take The essence of putting digital at work in a Ã¢â¬ËtransformativeÃ¢â¬â¢ way is to ensure that data and insight are embedded into an automated process, connecting divisions, back office and front office, to eliminate manual processes to more effectively engage customers, partners or employees. As a result, businesses must invest in in new technologies and processes to enhance customer experience. As a result, enterprises must streamline the process that customers use to interact with a business to ensure that the systems used for customer engagement enhance the process and provide accurate information sharing with various back-end systems of record. Access to information must be more responsive and immediate in the age of the customer. The end goal is for businesses to phase out analog and paper-based processes, which are error prone and consumer manual effort. Intro Businesses are struggling with adjusting to the age of the empowered customer and their demands. There are forces ofShow MoreRelatedIT Strategic Plan1945 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesand developing a powerful brand with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. By capitalizing on our strengths we can turn Bear Beverages into the most successful brand in our industry. This success depends on efficiency, agility, and reaching our youthful, tech-enabled customer. Technology will make this happen. 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Vision / Mission / Purpose: The Walt Disney Company has maintained a vision of being the preeminent leader in the field of family entertainment. The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose in reaching this vision is to show a commitment to producing unparalleled entertainment experiences based on its rich legacy of quality, creative content, and exceptional storytellingRead MoreCompeting for the Future9005 Words Ã |Ã 37 Pagesthe future competitively unique? Ask yourself: How influential is my company in setting the new rules of competition within its industry? Is it regularly redefining new ways of doing business building new capabilities, and setting new standards of customer satisfaction? Is it more a rule maker than a rule taker within its industry? Is it more intent on challenging the industry status quo than protecting it? 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Chart 1: US Selected Automobile Manufacturers Market Share 2013 (Statista, 2013) Ã¢â¬Æ' EXISTING LEADERSHIP Ã¢â¬Å"Leadership is purpose-driven action that brings about change or transformation based on values, ideals, vision, symbols and emotional exchangesÃ¢â¬ (Bryman, 1992). GrintÃ¢â¬â¢s Typology is used as a tool to analyse GMÃ¢â¬â¢s existing leadership through several lenses: Person, Purpose, Position and Process. a. From a Personal lens: The
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Unless we withdraw to some sort of spiritual ghetto where we could sever ourselves off completely from the persuasion of the media, we have to learn how to deal with the challenges produced by it. The media may not have the political authority to embody the views and concerns of the people, there is still a position in our budding culture for a further relaxation of government control over the media. Of immense significance to us as Christians is that if we allow the sinfulness of humankind as we should, there are more grounds for us to increase extra checks, through other media sources. If being obvious is what we want our political structure to be, an independent media can contribute to a more transparent society where no public servant and political leader can conceal his or her sins. It should be our Christian concern to defend truth and honesty. While vigorous rivalry among the extended (and hopefully expanding) media factions should be encouraged, there is a need to insist that truth will not be surrendered in the name of convenience when information is published without giving enough adequate time for determining correctness and reliability of the account. We will write a custom essay sample on Christian Perspective on News Media or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I think in the past, the truth has been compromised when the major media groups in the United States reported on the results of the presidential elections. The television stations tried to outdo each other by announcing unconfirmed results which turned out to be a political soap opera rather than a reliable news reporting. I think that in the most recent elections, this has become a thing of the past. But there is a place for the Church to recognize the mechanisms of the media and use the media to have a say to the shaping of public values and ethical vision for the sake of the common good. This ultimately means that the Church must be apprehensive about the downside of being fed by media that are closely linked with any particular interest group, including the government. When we as a society ask the questions, whose interest and whose ethics? Forget uncovering for ourselves the veiled interests and sinister values of the media owners and operators, raising the questions should also assist us to be receptive to those (such as the minority groups) whose interests and values might have been ignored by the media which might be more apt to concentrate on the attention and taste of the advantaged and authoritative. Conceivably, the occasion is precise for considerate Christians to form a Christian Media Watch to evaluate the unrestrained behavior of some of the media groups and any harmful values which they may sneak through their pages or editorial biases.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Poly Sci Final Paper Essay Final Paper Washington State University Political Science 418 Fall 2012 Section 1 Professor Robert Quinlan December 6, 2012 Introduction This paper is written almost exclusively with information taken directly from the book Families of the ForestÃ by Alan Johnson about the lifestyle of the Matsigenka Amazonian Natives. Information regarding the Matsigenka is almost solely derived from the work of Johnson unless noted otherwise. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Matsigenka people, their needs as a community and finally pose a development project that meets the needs described. Realistically this is only one possible solution posed by an inexperienced undergraduate student. The author is student who has never set foot in South America or even has had any experience with a development project. The ideas expressed in this work are purely an academic exercise. The author does not assume that the Matsigenka do not already know and or practice some of the ideas shared in this assignment. Overview of the Matsigenka The Matsigenka, a native peopleÃ of theÃ Amazon Basin, live in what Johnson describes as an Ã¢â¬Å"angular landscape, along river valleys surrounded by forested mountainsÃ¢â¬ . We will write a custom essay sample on Poly Sci Final Paper specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Poly Sci Final Paper specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Poly Sci Final Paper specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The Matsigenka have a peripheral environment on the outside edge of conquest lands. They originally settled in to a as a bid to avoid conflicts with other groups. The land is not ideal but good enough to live on while not ever being sought as territory for annexation by other groups. They are very isolated and their living choice has the consequence scarcity. Many of the best crops, fish, and game are not as bountiful as they are in other areas. They have plenty of land for their type of farming and their small population means they do not compete between themselves for resources. Their settlements are small and spread far apart. (Johnson) To understand the Matsigenka they must be seen in their own unique context of their daily lives. As with any parent, the task of raising a child is to raise them to be able to live in the world on their own one day. For the Matsigenka this means raising children who will become accustomed to living in their own nuclear family and thrive while in relative isolation. (Johnson) The MatsigenkaÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to be independent and desire to remain independent has been disheartening to missionaries and some schoolteachers. Attempts at organizing and building communities have largely been failures. The Matsigenka are happy to be free from directions and rules that stem from a missionary or any other persons attempt to convert or normalize them. (Johnson) From the very beginning their upbringing determines who they are as a people. From the start the emphasis on independence is apparent. No one is invited or comes to visit when a child is born. At birth a newborn is left alone on a mat while the mother is attended to. After a few minutes, the baby is then bathed with hot water causing discomfort making it cry. Johnson) The procedure is done to strengthen the child for the hard independent life to come. The Matsigenka parents test the childÃ¢â¬â¢s limits, expecting more and more self-reliance at an early age. In the home, mothers commonly tether toddlers to a stake keeping them from wandering into danger. The method is no more a cruel Ã¢â¬Å"leashÃ¢â¬ than a baby gate used in American homes could be considered a cruel cage. (Johnson) Tethering allows the child freedom and independence without the danger of physical harm. The MatsigenkaÃ¢â¬â¢s diet is varied and extensive. Their types of food production are farming, fishing, hunting, and foraging with some small use of domesticated animals. They can eat anything from raw foods found anywhere in their environment or eat feasts involving days of preparation. The people eat insect larvae of many bugs all during the year as source of dietary fats and protein. Larger game birds, monkeys, peccary, and tapir are the favorites. Farming small gardens is the most important to them making up more than half of their food. Foraging and fishing can often time produce disappointing results. Snakes are taboo and never eaten. (Johnson) Their diet poses no issues for them. For crops the people grow manioc (cassava), maze (corn), bananas, plantains, rice and coffee. Coffee has been introduced recently by outsiders as a cash crop. Along with trying to build communities the crop was meant to bring indigenous peoples into contact and trade with the modern parts of Peru. Coffee was seen as way to introduce money into the Matsigenka system. (Johnson) Their farming methods are sufficient to sustain them and the land they work on. The most important fish in the Matsigenka diet is shima. Johnson) These fish get up to 20 inches long and can weigh over 2 pounds. They are bottom feeders caught by net fishing. Mamori are similar in size to shima and caught with a regular hook and line setup. Rock dwelling fish like etari who are caught by hand. Along with other species such as shrimp and kempiti caught in traps fit into their diverse diet. Large fish species of omani, kayunaro and char ava are rarely caught. (Johnson) Domesticated animals are not overly significant to a family. Families typically raise a couple of chickens and ducks. They are allowed to forage around the house during the day, feeding on insects considered pests like ants and sometimes are given maize. At night they are kept in chicken coops tended to by the children. (Johnson) As a people, the Matsigenka are very adaptive and catch all kinds of fish in many different ways. The Matsigenka do not participate in the market economy. Attempts to get them to raise cash crops and begin to participate have been implemented by outsiders. (Johnson) They make nearly all of the material goods used in daily life. However they do not make knives, aluminum pots or other metal items. As men and women they learn complementary manufacturing skills allowing them self-sufficiency. Matsigenka can survive in long-term isolation as a nuclear family with the skills in fishing, farming and hunting in the manner they prefer. (Johnson) The Matsigenka are adaptive, and independent. Needs and resource assessment based on the ethnographic description The Matsigenka have good nutrition and housing but they still have barriers to good overall health. The problems they have are not their fault. As a people they do everything they can like maintain standards of cleanliness, and treat illness with medicines they have available. The problems arise from limited resources and knowledge. (Johnson) For hygiene the Matsigenka clean themselves, their homes, and their clothing daily. Even when they sit on the earthen floor of their home they use a woven mat. (Johnson) They wash their hand before preparing food and are careful with waste. Baths are taken daily and garbage is thrown out in a separate area away from the home. The Matsigenka find human waste disgusting along with animal waste and believe according to Johnson that Ã¢â¬Å"The evil odor of feces is believed to invade the body and cause illnessÃ¢â¬ (436) Families try to locate homes next to mountain streams to ensure a water supply uncontaminated by humans. (Johnson) Mountain streams, dry up seasonally forcing people back to the river for water where they are re-infected by water borne parasites. (Rainforest) Research has shown that the debilitating infections are colds, conjunctivitis, and parasites. Colds and conjunctivitis hit the community in waves. Epidemics move rapidly through the population. Tribal memories still exist of when the white manÃ¢â¬â¢s influenza that killed many. The people stay away from everyone and the schools when sickness hits. One of the most common greetings used by members is to ascertain if someone returning is sick and to be avoided. (Johnson) Johnson notes that researchers others who stayed with the Matsigenks stated: Most health complaints came to our attention because the medicines we had with us were believed to be more effective than Matsigenka remedies. Our house became a center where people would stop to tell us their symptoms and ask for treatment. They were pragmatic about accepting this help, seeing illness and injury as more or less naturally occurring. 436) When a family member becomes ill they are left to lie on a mat in their home while the rest of the family ignores the sick person. The Matsigenka believe sickness is life-threatening and feel a sick person is dangerous and best left alone. (Johnson) Johnson describes the Matsigenka as a mixed picture of health: They have an ample diet and are energetic and supple, capable of great feats of athleticism and endurance. They are attractive, maintain personal standards of cleanliness, and attend to their health needs with an array of remedies. On the other hand, they live with parasite loads that weaken them and probably contribute to many infant deaths, they are subject to viral and bacterial infections that periodically sweep their hamlets and incapacitate them putting food production at riskÃ¢â¬ ¦ Despite the beauty of nature surrounding them and their freedom to set their own work agenda, theirs is a hard life evident in the virtual absence of elderly people. (439) A needs and resource assessment based on the ethnographic description provided by Johnson would indicate a few key items. Health education, medical aid, improvements in sanitation, and clean drinking water are the most pressing needs. These could be possibly met using a culturally sensitive and responsible means of service delivery. Development project that meets one or more of the needs described Any project design must take into consideration the unique culture of the people it seeks to help Johnson notes in a prominent way that there is family level of sociocultural integration not a community one and the Matsigenka cannot be understood or appreciated except as a family level society. Meaning, as a group they are not Ã¢â¬Å"tropical-forest villagersÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"tribal peoplesÃ¢â¬ like most amateur sociologists may picture. Unlike other groups they do not participate in suprafamily, raiding and warfare, structured gift exchange, or even large group feasting. (Johnson) Concepts like a family reunion or organizing a militia to defend their land are completely foreign to their way of life. Johnson notes it is extremely difficult to get them to participate in any group activity. They will listen to and directions but will walk away and refuse to join the proposed group activity. Matsigenka are not amenable to being directed or led. Education or works projects from other regions cannot be rolled out in a cookie cutter fashion to help them. Understanding their independence and determination does not mean that the Matsigenka are closed to change. In the 1980 and 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s sierra farmers came to the mountain valleys to live next to Matsigenka families. The new farmers have brought infrastructural development that was welcomed by the Matsigenka people. They created school communities where boys, and girls, play soccer, study and do homework. Radios that can be found now are a sign of the integration of culture from the larger world around them. (Johnson) Most effective long term projects rely on ownership and the pride of the people they seek to help. Pride in ownership translates into maintenance and care of the public works project after the NGO who sets it up leaves. Johnson explains the idea of shintaro Ã¢â¬Å"ownerÃ¢â¬ if we think of it not as legal title to objects like land or trees, but as a form of respect for the individual. Any project must transfer respect as ownership to achieve long term sustainability. Recently in the last 15 years money has been dumped into projects that have failed and been abandoned. (Fraser) It is not enough to just build something and leave. The best way to help might be to model what the rainforest flow project has done and pay special attention to some cultural factors. Any project should consider how ownership is considered, how the people operate as a family level society, the aversion to group activities, and being told what to do. The project should capitalize on their strong sense of hygiene and build on their dislike of human waste. The Matsigenka already intrinsically know about the importance of clean water and washing hands. The leap from understanding clean water and increasing the effectiveness of existing sanitation procedures should be an accomplishable task if executed sensitivly. Hygiene education and health services As a people they are very pragmatic, adaptable and have demonstrated a belief in better westernized medicine when dealing with researchers in the past. (Johnson) Setting up clinics may not be the answer since they will avoid any area where they may go and become sick. The clinic will need to come to the sick, not the other way around. Travelling to and helping sick family members on sleeping on mats in the home will strengthen any belief in stronger westernized medicine. The process will loosen the hold of traditional beliefs in bad spirits having an influence on outcomes. Health education can effectively be delivered using the existing school system and reinforced when educators visit with health professionals providing mobile medical clinic visits. (Rainforest) Previously efforts were made to do similar projects but the participants only spoke Spanish not the native language. To eliminate the language barrier it will be key that the health professionals and educators are fluent in the native language. Workers will need to understand cultural norms of the Matsigenka. (Rainforest) Special consideration should be given to immunization programs. Immunizations can make the people feel sick afterward and may scare participants off. Postponing immunizations until a trust relationship has been built up may be necessary. Credibility may be required for families to believe they are not being made sick after a flu shot or pertussis vaccination. Sanitation The Matsigenka already believe in finding the freshest water. Health education should teach how to defecate away from any water source and bury it when in the forest. The disdain they have for waste and how they conduct life around their home makes them receptive. Composting latrines with hand washing facilities may be built near schools but attention should be given to ventilation and odor control (Rainforest) considering Ã¢â¬Å"The evil odor of feces is believed to invade the body and cause illnessÃ¢â¬ . (Johnson 436) Drinking water projects Delivering clean safe drinking water is of paramount importance to the Matsigenka, or any community. Rainforest Flow has used with self-reported success, for several years, a specific setup that uses low tech sand filtration. The method removes 99. 9 percent of bacteria from drinking water and uses a low tech gravitational flow. The systems are setup to support modest community growth and are maintained by a usage fee charged to every home water is delivered to. (Rainforest) In conclusion there are many projects that can possibly help the Matsigenka. The purpose of this paper was to introduce the Matsigenka people, their needs as a community and pose a development project that meets their needs sensitively. Like any group, assistance must be provided to them on their terms for it to be accepted. References Fraser, B. (2012, May 25). Machiguenga communities could be affected by peru gas production. Retrieved from Johnson, A. (2003). Families of the forest the matsigenka indians of the peruvian amazon. University of California Press. Retrieved from http://www. sscnet. ucla. edu/anthro/faculty/johnson/ethnography. html Rainforest flow. (2012, December 01). Retrieved from http://houseofthechildren. org/safe- drinking-water. html
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Blood Pressure Definition and First Aid Basics Ever noticed how a hose spouting water in your favorite Saturday-morning cartoon always looked like it was a snake vomiting footballs? Despite the fact that the water coming out of the end of the hose was running smoothly, its still a pretty good representation of how blood flows through our veins: in waves that we call pulses. The Pressure of the Blood Blood pressure is the forceÃ exerted against blood vessel walls by the blood as it flows through them. Because of the way arteries and veins are used by the circulatory system, arterial walls are much thicker and withstand higher pressures than venous walls do. Arteries have the ability to expand and constrict much more than veins can, which is necessary to adjust blood pressure. Because they exert that control, they have to be sturdy. When we measure blood pressure, we are measuring the pressure in the arteries. Usually, we measure the pressure in the brachial artery, although it is possible to measure blood pressure in other arteries as well. Blood pressure is manually measured using a stethoscope to listen blood flow turbulence, a cuff to constrict blood vessels enough to stop the flow, and a sphygmomanometer (big, fancy word for a pressure gauge and a squeeze bulb).Ã Electronic blood pressure monitors dont need humans (other than the one theyre testing) or stethoscopes. There are plenty of blood pressure monitors in homes today. If you have a blood pressure monitor or are considering buying one, you may be wondering what exactly blood pressure is and if you should monitor it. Why Does It Matter? Anyone who has left the water on in the garden has seen the hole that rushing water can make under pressure. That erosion can also happen in the body if high blood pressure is not treated. High blood pressure can also lead to strokes and aneurysms. An aneurysm is a weak spot in an artery that swells until it bursts, and hypertension makes that process happen faster. The Pulse Blood does not flow smoothly through arteries. Instead, it surges through the arteries each time the heart beats. That surge is known as the pulse and is easily felt through arteries in the wrist and neck. Even though blood is surging through the blood vessels, there is pressure on the vessels at all times. Indeed, the pulse we feel is really the difference between the pressure exerted against the arterials walls during the hearts rest and during the hearts contractions. Why an Upside Down Fraction? When blood pressure is measured, we commonly record the pressure as two numbers, one above the other,Ã like a fraction. The difference between a fraction and a blood pressure is that the top number of a blood pressure is always higher than the bottom number (example: 120/80). The top number is the systolic blood pressure. This is the pressure in the artery during the beating of the heart (systole). This is the pressure that creates the pulse we feel in the wrist or neck.The bottom number is the diastolic blood pressure. This is the pressure that is always in the artery, even when the heart is resting between beats (diastole).
Saturday, November 23, 2019
The Gullah or Geechee Community The Gullah people of South Carolina and Georgia have a fascinating history and culture. Also known as the Geechee, the Gullah are descended from African slaves who were prized for their ability to grow crucial crops such as rice. Due to geography, their culture was largely isolated from white society and from other slave societies. They are known for having preserved a tremendous amount of their African traditions and language elements. Today, approximately 250,000 people speak the Gullah language, a rich mixture of African words and the English that was spoken hundreds of years ago. The Gullah are currently working to ensure that future generations and the general public know about and respect the Gullah past, present, and future. Geography of the Sea Islands The Gullah people inhabit many of the one hundred Sea Islands, which stretch along the Atlantic Ocean coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and northern Florida. These marshy tidal and barrier islands have a humid subtropical climate. Sea Island, St. Helena Island, St. Simons Island, Sapelo Island, and Hilton Head Island are some of the most important islands in the chain. Enslavement and Atlantic Voyage Eighteenth-century plantation owners in South Carolina and Georgia wanted slaves to work on their plantations. Because growing rice is a very difficult, labor-intensive task, plantation owners were willing to pay high prices for slaves from the African Rice Coast. Thousands of people were enslaved in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Angola, and other countries. Before their voyage across the Atlantic Ocean, the slaves waited in holding cells in Western Africa. There, they began to create a pidgin language to communicate with people from other tribes. After their arrival in the Sea Islands, the Gullah blended their pidgin language with the English spoken by their masters. Immunity and Isolation of the Gullah The Gullah grew rice, okra, yams, cotton, and other crops. They also caught fish, shrimp, crabs, and oysters. Gullah had some immunity to tropical diseases like malaria and yellow fever. Because plantation owners did not have immunity to these diseases, they moved inland and left the Gullah slaves alone in the Sea Islands for much of the year. When the slaves were freed after the Civil War, many Gullah bought the land that they worked on and continued their agricultural way of life. They remained relatively isolated for another one hundred years. Development and Departure By the mid-20th century, ferries, roads, and bridges connected the Sea Islands to the mainland United States. Rice was also grown in other states, reducing the rice output from the Sea Islands. Many Gullah had to change their way of earning a living. Many resorts have been built in the Sea Islands, causing lingering controversy over ownership of the land. However, some Gullah now work in the tourism industry. Many have left the islands for higher education and employment opportunities. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas spoke Gullah as a child. The Gullah Language The Gullah language has developed over four hundred years. The name Gullah probably derives from the Gola ethnic group in Liberia. Scholars have debated for decades over classifying Gullah as a distinct language or merely a dialect of English. Most linguists now regard Gullah as an English- based Creole language. It is sometimes called Sea Island Creole. The vocabulary is comprised of English words and words from dozens of African languages, such as Mende, Vai, Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba. The African languages also greatly influenced Gullah grammar and pronunciation. The language was unwritten for much of its history. The Bible was recently translated into the Gullah language. Most Gullah speakers are also fluent in standard American English. Gullah Culture The Gullahs of the past and present have an intriguing culture that they deeply love and want to preserve. Customs, including storytelling, folklore, and songs, have been passed down through generations. Many women make crafts like baskets and quilts. Drums are a popular instrument. The Gullahs are Christians and attend church services regularly. Gullah families and communities celebrate holidays and other events together. The Gullah enjoy delicious dishes based on the crops they traditionally grew. Great efforts have been made to preserve the Gullah culture. The National Park Service oversees the Gullah/Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor. A Gullah Museum exists on Hilton Head Island. Firm Identity The story of the Gullahs is very important to African-American geography and history. Its interesting that a separate language is spoken off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia. The Gullah culture will undoubtedly survive. Even in the modern world, the Gullah are an authentic, unified group of people that deeply respect their ancestors values of independence and diligence.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
China as an economic power in the world - Research Paper Example For this to happen, the Chinese government needs to implement policies that fasten ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s transition to an economy that is a free market. In addition, it should address issues to do with growing income disparities, enhance innovation and production, as well as boost the protection of the environment. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s gross domestic product has grown at an annual rate of about 10%. China has risen rapidly as a major economic power within a span of about three decades. The rapid economic growth has led to an increase in commercial ties with the United States. As compared to the U.S, China is less developed but analysts predict that China will become the largest in the next five years. Many U.S companies have operations in China and the main reason is to have the ability to sell their products in the flourishing Chinese market and to take advantage of cheap labor for the exporting goods. These operations have made some U.S firms more competitive internationally and have managed to supply the U.S consumers with a range of goods at a low cost. However, the rise of China as a major economic power has brought challenges among the U.S policy makers. There have been claims that China uses practices that amount to unfair trade to flood the U.S market with goods that are of low cost. In addition, the growing use of industrial policies to protect the indigenous Chinese industries and the widespread failure to take action against the infringement of the U.S intellectual property rights pose as a threat to the U.S intensive industries (Jacques, 2009). Others contend that the country has a growing demand for energy and raw materials and its surfacing to be the country that emits the most greenhouse gases. China faces a number of challenges as much as the Chinese government supports the maintenance of social stability as one of the ways of growing the economy. The challenges may dampen the growth of the countyÃ¢â¬â¢s future by distorting economic
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Causes Of Cancer - Essay Example Occupation-related cancer comprises 5 to 20% of the cases. The minimum of 200,000 people worldwide dies annually from cancer induced by harmful workplace conditions. The majority of deaths linked to occupational risk factors happen in the developed countries. In the U.S. only, 20,000 cancer deaths and 40,000 newly registered cases a year can be attributed to dangerous chemicals inhaled or contacted with while at work. Genetic factors can also play a crucial role in cancer development. Mutations of the genome alter the growth patterns and make targeted cells potentially cancerous. Sometimes, genetic mutations may be present from the moment of birth, and a syndrome is called family cancer syndrome. The mutation usually occurs in one or several tumor suppressor genes. Such individuals are predisposed to having cancer, but they do not necessarily develop clinical signs. Every gene is represented in the cell with two copies called alleles. Cancer syndromes are usually transferred in the autosomal dominant way. This means that even one altered allele is enough for the individual to be predisposed to cancer. Potential children of such a person and an individual with two intact alleles are at a 50% risk of being born sick (Brown & Anderson, 2007). The regularity, called a two-hit hypothesis, says that the first hit is the genome mutation and the second one happens later in life. Since only one allele is to be altered, the chance of developing a disease is higher in affected people than in the rest of population.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Impact of Arrival of Television on Electioneering In England Essay INTRODUCTION The invention of television marked he beginning of a new epoch. The age of information technology made information available at the push of a button. Facts and distortion of facts are the tools of the entertainment industry. Exaggeration is the premise on which the advertizing agency works. It is confluence of the audio visual impact which is one of the most powerful influences that is experienced by the individual. It left no human endeavor untouched .The fate of democracy is determined by the elections. Television was utilized for campaigning of the candidates participating in the election. It brought about a complete revamping of the election campaign. Local issues were sidelined and an emphasis on the national campaign wasÃ Ã the dominant feature of the election process.Mass media had completely mesmerized both the masses and the persons responsible for planning and execution of the election campaign. The recent proliferation of the media channels has led to a depletion of issues that can be aired on these channels .therefore there has been a shift from national to local politics. The impact of the television is not just limited to what is going to be at the forefront but it has led to complete overhaul of the process. The campaigns are more articulate and well planned .The concept of negative publicity has been inducted like it was done never before. The elections are loosing personal touch as there is more emphasis on the how to air the campaign. Consequently the expenditure on the elections is rising partly because of infalation and partly because the campaigns are conducted on grand scale. British Law permits each party to air its programme, policies and agendas on the national channels across England for 20 minutes without paying any tariff for putting it on air. Each party is given a maximum of five repeat telecast. HISTORY OF POLITICAL BROADCAST Political broadcasting started in Britain in 1924 on radio with a20 minute allocation time for each party. it was started on television in 1951. Ã It was an unpaid time slot of 15 minutes that was allocated to each party. The political broadcasts are regulated by the 1990 Broadcasting Act and the Political Parties, Elections and Referendum Act 2000.The initial directives of the act forbade that the political advertisement should not be purely political in nature. In 2001 general election theÃ three major political parties were given five chances to broadcast their political campaign where as the minor political parties were given one chance if they were contesting one sixth of the total seats. 5 and 10 minutes of political advertisements were replaced by 240, 340 or 440and a stricture is placed on them so that they should not violate decency and good taste. All the political electoral broadcast by various party are simultaneously aired .These are either preceded or followed byÃ previews and reviews by the major news paper daily and there fore the messages are a kind of reinforced. Currently there is ongoing debate on whether the system of political broadcast should be completely scraped or it should be revised with a provision of paid commercials. Since time immemorial it has been stated that effective governance is related to whether the voters have made an informed choice. It is privileged class who will try different means to gather information about the party and candidates standing in the election. The masses either do not makes a conscious effort to gather information or they rely on effortless means to gain information about the political parties. What the media is representing can differ. On the one hand it can be balanced objective on the other hand it can be preferential It has been observed that commercial broadcasting system can have ulterior motives as they are there to maximize their benefits. The national broadcasting system is more conducive to producing objective information Ã Ã about the political parties. Political advertising in England is more party oriented where as in America the emphasis is on the candidate .Lot of attention is being paid to the effect of use of media in the election .It is very difficult to conclusively prove that what results it is going to produce .England is a very old democracy and all the parties have their particular image .Media cannot altogether alter the image of the partyÃ .It can highlight the achievement of the party and it can make the manifesto more lucrative. This premise is in accordance with the earliest studies of the impact of television on the electoral outcomes by Blumler and McQuail. The party campaign through the media is expected to effect the voter turn out. It can bring to the forefront various campaign issues. It can create an enthusiasm for gathering more information about the party programmes.These early studies reflected that voting for political parties were a matter of class and the election campaign served very little purpose. The conservative and the Labour party were dividing the voters on the basis of who did manual labour and who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work with their hands i.e the managers and the employers and the middle class The voters who changed their loyalties from one party to another were primarily for a short term. It has been observed that this faction was to swing back its support to he party which it originally adhered to.Ã It can be said that these floating voters can be influenced by the televised transmission of the electoral campaign. This can be contended because the labour part lost three elections in a row in 1959 although the class that does manual labour constitute major chunk of the electorate. The material prosperity entailed a spread of the middle class values and hence the conservatives won the election. The messages that are aired during the political campaigns in election are not the only information available to the electorate. The long term memory of the people might be short. That doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that the events political debatesÃ Ã press conferences, by- elections etc preceding the election campaign have no consequence. The election campaign through the media is of two kinds. One in which the focus is on the image building or the achievement of the party .The other kind deals with the character assassination of the opponent. If the attack broadcasting is exaggerated and is not substantiated then it can create sympathy for the opponent. The conservative party campaign nick named Ã¢â¬ËDemon eyeÃ¢â¬â¢ of 1997 was counter productive It created an image of Labour as leftwing radicals. The electorate had experience a moderate labour party government under the leadership of Tony Blair. A caricature of Mr. Bust and Mr. Boom was used to depict the economic condition of England .The facts that Britain had experienced a spurt in the economy in 1980 under the leadership of Thatcher. This kind of media campaign has to be used with great caution as it is either counterproductive or it does not have any effect on the target audience. If there are fractions within the party then it can bolster unity among the contending fractions. The persuasive propaganda is more useful and almost all the parties realize that it is the best way to campaign .It pays attention to detailing the ideology of the party. It is oriented on the fact that the achievement of the party is highlighted. Moreover it is presented in manner that it appears more entertaining so as to keep the audience hooked on to it. It can be proved that the parties are more interested in this positive kind of advertisement by looking at the percentage of the campaign allocated to the political advertisement. Negative references were a small and similar proportion of the total literature of all three parties: 8.7 per cent Conservative, 10.4 Labour, 9.8 per cent Liberal Democrat. The televised broadcast of the political party programmes is useful tools because the minor political parties get a chance to make themselves felt. This is true for most of the countries who have democracy and who have televised political advertisement. Even .The liberal democrats were able to make themselves felt through their advocacy strategy. In 1951 the minor parties had around 10% to 3% of the vote share. This vote share increased in the 1997 and almost one fourth of the total share of the vote. There are many reasons for the increase in the vote share of the relatively new and unknown political parties like social class. Education of the voter as it determines whether it is an informed choice or not. Media especially the print media is specially tilted in favor of conservative parties IT was in the I970s that the researches were conducted and it reflected that a change had occurred in the political environment of Britain .The voters were not holding to the rigid class bias of the political parties due to the influence of the television. The other factor that is responsible for this change was the economic affluence in England as that was responsible for mitigating the gap between the rich and the poor.Other researches argue that this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that class politics has changed rather it can be seen as both the parties are going out of favor. Heath et al argue Ã¢â¬Å"analysts have mistaken changes in behavior by voters for changes in their motivation without asking first whether or not the political stimulus they have received is still the same or not. They suggest, for example, that variations in the strength of the class alignment may well reflect changes in the distance between the parties on class-based issuesÃ¢â¬ . The voters are not taking their decisions in vacuum there are certain political and social issues that are motivating the voters to vote for apolitical parties. The short term shift in the voters preference is based on the perception of the competence of the parties,. The parties in power can effectively utilize the print as well as the television in advertizing its achievement .There have been fears thatÃ the hegemony of the media was responsible for the conservatives winning the election as they have the hegemony over the press. It has been time and again proved television is not the sole deciding factor in determining the outcome of the election. The 1980s saw a shift from the national to regional politics .There was a variation in the voting patterns from one region to another. If television has been the main sway in the elections then the entire country should have shown a similar pattern. Local campaign did make a difference The surveys conducted by the Labour party showed that Its percentage of votes was directly related to number of people working for the party  Local campaign play an important role in persuading the voters to vote for a particular party. It is very difficult to find out what was the ultimate reason for voting as the preferences of an individual are shaped in the recesses of an individuals mind. Television came second in the list of what influenced the voters of the survey conducted by MORI .The regional television can be utilized to create amore local and specific advertisement for the electorate. This area has yet to be explored by the political party.. Ã The labour party topped the list of frequency of the reference of the constituencies and it made almost 28.7 per cent of sentences referring to local provision. The Conservatives made 16.5 per cent and made the Liberal Democrats 10.2 per cent references to the local issues. This means the elections are by and large fought on national issues which are effectively transmitted through the television. The lab our party has thrice lost elections till 1997. This reflects that though they made more references to the local electoral constituencies they were unable to convert the voters in their favour. CONCLUSION It is seen that the advent of television had completely changed the way in which we look at the different issues .Things which are of relatively lesser importance can be presented in an innovative method .The election process in England has its own peculiarities.Ã Television didnÃ¢â¬â¢t bring about a complete transformation of the election process of Britain. England is one of the oldest proponents of the institution of democracy. The two major parties the lobour and conservatives have their peculiar images .Television cannot completely alter the public perception. The older generation is more difficult to mould as its ideas are set .The televised broadcasting of the party manifesto can be aimed at the youth which is more likely to change its preferences. A perceptible shift is seen in the support base of the two major political parties the Labour party was supported by the people doing manual labour and the conservatives were supported by the middle class. The class distinction was thought to be the basis of the voting pattern. Now this distinction is becoming less and less important as media and economic affluence has reduced the gap between the rich and poor.Ã The influence of television has backfired on the two major parties .The minor political parties have increased their vote percentage. The major beneficiary is the Liberal Democratic Party. Although it has been the pristine premise that the informed electorateÃ can lead to the formation of more effective and responsible government .It can be said with certainty that the voters of the present age are more informed but there is difference between having knowledge and judicious use of knowledge..The other aspect of this election scenario of England is that there is no alternative to the present parties on the national level .Even if the voter is aware of the shortcomings of the present parties, he has no choice. The voters have to choose the lesser evil. REFERENCES Blumler, Jay G. and Denis Mc Quail. 1968. Television in Politics: Its Uses and Influence. London: Faber Faber.n.p Bonham, J. (1954), The Middle Class Vote (London: Faber)pp 56-62 Butler, D. and Stokes, D (1974) Political Change in Britain(2nd. edition) pp54-78(London: Macmillan) Evans, G. Heath, A., and Payne, C. (1999), Ã¢â¬ËClass: Labour as a Catch-All Party?Ã¢â¬â¢ in Evans, G. and Norris, P. (eds.), Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-Term Perspective n.p Ã (London: Sage) Kaid, Lynda Lee and John C. Tedesco. 1993. Ã¢â¬ËA comparison of political television advertising fromthe 1992 British and American campaigns.Ã¢â¬â¢ Informatologia 25(1-2): 1-12 Kavanagh,Ã The British General Election of 2001. Basingstoke n.p: Palgrave Macmillan News on Party Images in the 1997 British General Election. British Elections and Parties Norris, 2001. Ed. Britain Votes 2001.n.p Ã Oxford: Oxford University Press. Norris et al .1999; Norris and Sanders 2000Ã pp 110-120 Sanders, David and Pippa Norris. 1998. Does Negative News Matter? The Effects of Television Semetko , holi .A 1996 The Media In Comparing democracies edited by LawerenceÃ Le Duc,Richard Niemaand Pippa Norris London:SageÃ pp254-279 Seyd, P. P. Whiteley (2002) New LabourÃ¢â¬â¢s Grass Roots: The Transformation of Labour Party Membership, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.pp10-38 Zaller John2003Ã¢â¬ Anew standerd of the news quality: Burglar alarm Monitorial CitizensÃ¢â¬ Political communication20 109-130  (Kavanagh, (1970). The British General Election of 2001. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan News on Party Images in the 1997 British General Election. British Elections and Parties n,p  Zaller John2003Ã¢â¬ Anew standerd of the news quality: Burglar alarm Monitorial CitizensÃ¢â¬ Political communication20 pp109-130  Semetko , holi .A 1996 The Media In Comparing democracies edited by LawerenceÃ Le Duc,Richard Niemaand Pippa Norris London:SageÃ pp254-279  Blumler, Jay G. and Denis McQuail. 1968. Television in Politics: Its Uses and Influence. London: Faber Faber.n.p  Norris et al .1999; Norris and Sanders 2000Ã pp 110-120  Bonham, J. (1954), The Middle Class Vote (London: Faber)pp 56-62  Kaid, Lynda Lee and John C. Tedesco. 1993. Ã¢â¬ËA comparison of political television advertising from the 1992 British and American campaigns.Ã¢â¬â¢ Informatologia 25(1-2): pp1-12  Butler, D. and Stokes, D (1974) Political Change in Britain(2nd. edition) pp 54-78(London: Macmillan)  Evans, G. Heath, A., and Payne, C. (1999), Ã¢â¬ËClass: Labour as a Catch-All Party?n.p Norris, P. (eds.), Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-Term Perspective (London: Sage)n.p  Seyd, P. P. Whiteley (2002) New LabourÃ¢â¬â¢s Grass Roots: The Transformation of Labour Party Membership, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan pp.10 38
Thursday, November 14, 2019
In my culture, the environment is clean. We have clean houses, clean community spaces, and clean schools. We tend to avoid places that are dirty. The housing is generally sufficient for our needs, and we have compassion for those whose living spaces are not suitable for their lifestyle. Yet no person in my culture would offer their home or car to someone who needed it more. Appearance is extremely important in my culture. The people in my culture are expected to dress neat and clean. It doesn't have to be the latest style, but clean and neat is appropriate. Those who do dress in the latest style seem to command more respect from the others. Those who don't dress in accordance with these rules are not ostracized but pitied. Usually, the hair styles grow shorter with age. Most women are expected to wear make-up, the men are not. Women are expected to but not required to have large breasts, slim figures, small features (hands, feet, and noses), straight teeth, and a healthy tan. Men are usually required to have a flat stomach, bulging biceps, thick, full hair, straight teeth, and, of course, a healthy tan. Although many people of my culture do not fit these images, most try in one way or another to achieve these standards of appearance. Those who can achieve these standards are usually respected and revered. These people are often featured in the media and interviewed on how they accomplished this goal of appearance. Ã The language of my culture is English. Many speak other languages and are respected for taking the time to do so. This culture originated in Europe and sailed across the Atlantic Ocean. There are many different cultures represented in my culture, but we are generally white an... ...ach day. Ã My school experiences were very diverse. Many of my friends came from cultures other than my own. Many students from differing cultures graduated with highest honors and received scholarships. They had to learn to work hard and to value knowledge just like I did. It is unfortunate that many of us had to conform to the mold set by the school in order to be successful though. Ã School reinforces the values dominant in society. If the society is dominated by one particular culture then every student must learn those values. Luckily, many cultures share values and ideas, but unfortunately, many do not. Conflict is the result of our diversity and society, including those who decide the curricula for schools must compromise. Too bad it usually doesn't happen, I would like to know more about my neighbors. Ã Ã My Dominant White Culture Essay example -- Cultural Identity Essays In my culture, the environment is clean. We have clean houses, clean community spaces, and clean schools. We tend to avoid places that are dirty. The housing is generally sufficient for our needs, and we have compassion for those whose living spaces are not suitable for their lifestyle. Yet no person in my culture would offer their home or car to someone who needed it more. Appearance is extremely important in my culture. The people in my culture are expected to dress neat and clean. It doesn't have to be the latest style, but clean and neat is appropriate. Those who do dress in the latest style seem to command more respect from the others. Those who don't dress in accordance with these rules are not ostracized but pitied. Usually, the hair styles grow shorter with age. Most women are expected to wear make-up, the men are not. Women are expected to but not required to have large breasts, slim figures, small features (hands, feet, and noses), straight teeth, and a healthy tan. Men are usually required to have a flat stomach, bulging biceps, thick, full hair, straight teeth, and, of course, a healthy tan. Although many people of my culture do not fit these images, most try in one way or another to achieve these standards of appearance. Those who can achieve these standards are usually respected and revered. These people are often featured in the media and interviewed on how they accomplished this goal of appearance. Ã The language of my culture is English. Many speak other languages and are respected for taking the time to do so. This culture originated in Europe and sailed across the Atlantic Ocean. There are many different cultures represented in my culture, but we are generally white an... ...ach day. Ã My school experiences were very diverse. Many of my friends came from cultures other than my own. Many students from differing cultures graduated with highest honors and received scholarships. They had to learn to work hard and to value knowledge just like I did. It is unfortunate that many of us had to conform to the mold set by the school in order to be successful though. Ã School reinforces the values dominant in society. If the society is dominated by one particular culture then every student must learn those values. Luckily, many cultures share values and ideas, but unfortunately, many do not. Conflict is the result of our diversity and society, including those who decide the curricula for schools must compromise. Too bad it usually doesn't happen, I would like to know more about my neighbors. Ã Ã
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Karl Marx in his time was known for his research on the alienation of the employees in the workplace. It was during that time in the Industrial Revolution did Karl Marx publish his book Das Kapital which not only criticized the system of capitalism but also the state of the workers working at long hours and under small amounts of compensation. Alienation for Marx is considered to be a cause of a decrease in productivity and entails to a much larger problem among the working class. According to his theory, the worker is subjected to various forms of alienation at the workplace. First one is the alienation to himself. The particular worker in the office would oftentimes consider himself a different person (Marx, 2006). This is brought about by the particular thinking that he alone exists and no one else does. Same can be said for the students in universities who often think a lot, write a lot, and do sorts of things that sometimes, he detaches himself from his inner capabilities. The student who also experience rejection, failure, and embarrassment is also alienated to himself. For instance, if one student fails a subject although he knows for a fact that he did everything he could just to pass his subject, he would resort to do other things that seem to worth nothing because even if he did what he could, he still failed the subject. This results to certain forms of depression and also sometimes to even suicide. Another form of alienation that Karl Marx explained is the alienation from other people in the workplace. For example, in particular workplace or office, employees commonly have cubicles wherein they do their jobs throughout the shift not necessarily minding the other people he works with. Applying this form of alienation to students in the university, students often most are alienated from one another in so many ways. First, students are separated from one another in classes in various buildings. Second, students are, in a particular class, not allowed to interact with one another during a lecture. They are alienated with one another by the existence of that certain notion of fountain of knowledge that most professors have. The fountain of knowledge is that one person acknowledges himself to be the only source of information. This certain act further contributes to the alienation. This is even more substantiated by the pressure the studies bring in the thinking that the only way to get a job is to have a degree in a university. With that particular way of thinking, the recognition of the various forms of intelligence are ignored and only the academic intelligence is recognized. The last form of alienation that most modern workers experience is the alienation from society. This form of alienation causes the individual to think that he is separate from society and works as an island. Modern office workers experience this by the schedule of their work. For instance, in a lot of business processes outsourcing (BPO) workers, graveyard shifts are a common thing to have. Graveyard shifts are working hours that are not the conventional type of working hours. They work at night when everyone is supposed to be sleeping and getting ready for the next day ahead. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Students on the other hand, also experience this kind of alienation. First, alienation from their love ones is exhibited by leaving their families to live in dormitories inside the campus and thus learning to live on their own (Salerno, 2004). Second, by having the pressure that not studying enough would cause rejection. This thinking often leads to the reasoning why students are often studying hard at night when everyone else should be resting. Also, student in universities does not want anyone to disturb them and this is explained by the fact that as they are alienated, their behaviour changes as well. References: Marx, K., Engels, F., & Jones, G. S. (2006). The communist manifesto. 119 p. Salerno, R. A. (2004). Beyond the enlightenment : lives and thoughts of social theorists. xi, 242 p.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Brent MeyersÃ¢â¬â¢ stated,Ã¢â¬ as employees demand increases in salary, the cost of producing goods or services also increasesÃ¢â¬ . With the unemployment rate where it is today and was, company owners can remain stagnant with his/her current work force as it pertains to wage increases. I believe employees understand that finding employment in this economy can be daunting, and business owners are educated to these thoughts. Another element that plays into job satisfaction is management strategies and personal interaction between managers and company personnel. I recently read an article about new managers and ten mistakes he/she may make. Management: Top 10 New Manager Mistakes. In this article, John F. Reh points out ten critical mistakes new manager make. I believe he is spot on due to shifts in management personnel here at Nypro, my current employer. The first mistake on JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s list is Ã¢â¬Å"thinking he/she knows everythingÃ¢â¬ . Most managers I have come across micromanage his/her team due to lack of trust and believing his/her knowledge is far superior to those working under them. This in turn leaves little room for a team to develop because lack of communication is there between parties. The second leading mistake new managers make is Ã¢â¬Å"showing everyone whoÃ¢â¬â¢s in chargeÃ¢â¬ . With the shift in new management personnel, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure everyone knows who the new boss is. Pushing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s weight around, and showing your egoÃ¢â¬â¢s true colors will only lead to resentment and failure to cooperate. This in-turn leads to employee dissatisfaction and most likely, a lack in quality produced products. Third on this list is Ã¢â¬Å"change everythingÃ¢â¬ . Trying to Ã¢â¬ re-invent the wheelÃ¢â¬ will most likely lead to the discomfort of employees. Most people find it hard to change with the times. Most feel comfortable by staying with routine and what he/she knows. Moving individuals out of his/her comfort zone can have a negative impact on performance. With that said though, sometimes change is necessary, considering that our economic system is financially unstable, which in turn is effecting the way companies are doing business in this globalized business world. This list does continues on with negatives that impact job satisfaction, but I would also like to take the time to point out the positive influences managers can have as well. Bauer, T. , & Erdogan, B. Organizational Behavior. chapter 12. Throughout this course we have learned the behaviors of individuals in the work place, motivation, stress, communication, etc. Chapter 12, Ã¢â¬Å"Leading People Within OrganizationsÃ¢â¬ was an eye opener for me. Some of the most fundamental aspects of managing a team or company has been forgot in my eyes by most managers in this current job market. I believe today, employees are missing the Ã¢â¬Å"People orientated leadersÃ¢â¬ . By definition, Ã¢â¬Å"People Orientated LeadersÃ¢â¬ are those that Ã¢â¬ show concern for employee feelings and treating employees with respect and considerationÃ¢â¬ . Bauer & Erdogan pg. 290. ) Managers of today in my mind follow Ã¢â¬Å"Theory XÃ¢â¬ which states Ã¢â¬ employees are lazy, do not enjoy working, and will avoid expending energy on work whenever possibleÃ¢â¬ . ( Bauer & Erdogan pg. 291. ) I clearly stated earlier that companies are struggling to return to a high standing in profitabi lity due to a failing economy. By saying this, managers need to find ways to justify cuts and spending within an organization. So how do they go about making such cut? By having an assertive attitude and pointing the finger at employees. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe Ã¢â¬Å"theory XÃ¢â¬ is completely wrong, some workers in our companies are indeed lazy and do not want to expend energy on task provided, but I think if the managers of today were just as concerned with his/her workforce by being Ã¢â¬ Open, Conscientious, Sociable, and AgreeableÃ¢â¬ , as he/she is about profits and the stakeholders, the organizational environment may have a more fruitful existence along with a boost in productivity. [Bauer, T. , & Erdogan pg. 286. ] Lisa M. Saari & Timothy a. Judge Case study Employee Attitudes And Job Satisfaction. s an analysis of Ã¢â¬ three major gaps between HR practice and scientific research in the area of employee attitudes in general and the most focal employee attitude in particular- job satisfaction: 1) the cause of employee attitudes, 2) the result of positive or negative job satisfaction, and 3) how to measure and influence employee attitudesÃ¢â¬ . [Saari & Judge] Gap-1 Ã¢â¬ The Cause of Employee AttitudesÃ¢â¬ The first gap focuses onÃ¢â¬ employee personalities, cultural influences, and work situation influencesÃ¢â¬ . A study on dispositional influences found that Ã¢â¬ childhood temperament was statistically related to adult job satisfaction up to 40 years laterÃ¢â¬ . (Staw, Bell, & Clausen, 1986) Further studies have shown that job satisfaction stems from a individuals Ã¢â¬ disposition or temperamentÃ¢â¬ . (Shane, & Herald, 1996) Despite the findings of these individuals Erez states that Ã¢â¬ one of the limitations in this literature is that it is not yet informative as to how exactly dispositions affect job satisfactionÃ¢â¬ . Erez, 1994) The researchers do say there is a correlation between job satisfaction, but know that Ã¢â¬Å"organizations cannot directly impact employee personalitiesÃ¢â¬ . So companies take different measures by placing employee into jobs that best suit him/her, and in-turn, improve employee attitudes. Cultural influences is another hot topic in this globalized job market. With the United States being the melting pot of the world, cross cultural work forces are inevitable. A study performed by Hofstede stated that there are Ã¢â¬ four cross-cultural dimensions, (1) Individualism- collectivism; (2) uncertainty avoidance versus risk taking; (3) Power distance; (4) masculinity/femininity. (Hofstede, 1980) The importance of HR to understand these four Ã¢â¬ cross-cultural factorsÃ¢â¬ is detrimental to the adjustment of different cultural attitudes within an organization. [Hofstede] The last portions of gap-1 is Ã¢â¬Å"Work Situation InfluenceÃ¢â¬ . This to me is one if not the most important factor of job satisfaction, Ã¢â¬Å"is the nature of the work itselfÃ¢â¬ satisfying. Also, these surveys provide data that a company can use to pinpoint problem areas within the organization. Nypro uses such surveys via internet to determine employee job satisfaction, would you recommend a relative or friend to work at Nypro, and are you satisfied with the work provided, question like that. This case study concludes its research with the view that more in-depth study is needed to measure the impact that employee attitudes have on an organization. Furthermore, this research will dive deeper into the understanding of Ã¢â¬ relationships between employee attitudes and business performanceÃ¢â¬ . This in-turn Ã¢â¬Å"will Assist HR professionals as they strive to enhance the essential people side of the business in a highly competitive, global arenaÃ¢â¬ . Lisa M. [Saari ;amp; Timothy a. Judge] I believe this case study pointed out some very strong facts that dictate a positive or negative attitude as it pertains to job satisfaction. Although the work performed was a focal point for this research and how it plays into a fruitful work environment. Managers attitude, friendship in the workplace, and economic stability, should have been focal points too of their research. I believe these three key factors play just as much a role in job satisfaction and employee attitudes as any other facet of a work environment. Understanding not just the employee and his/her personality, but the scope of the work environment, and management personnel that govern action among employees, will surely improve employee performance, attitude, and overall wellbeing of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce. In conclusion, I chose this topic out of the many provided because job satisfaction in the work place has become a sore subject to discuss among co-workers in recent years. Since I have been in the manufacturing industry, I have heard talk of the business not being what it used to be. Employees are dissatisfied with the way companies in the manufacturing sector of business treat their employees. People donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel a sense of job security, are overworked, understaffed, and underpaid. In this declining economy, companies that once saw rising profits, now find themselves making cut anywhere they can. This of course will impact the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce itself. My degree pertains to management, and although there is areas of the business that are hard to control at the time, price of natural resources, conomic stability of the firm, competitors prices, and wages for employees, does not mean that managers have to forget fundamental areas he/she can control, company functions for staff members, personal interaction with the workforce, and letters or emails of praise to employees. I understand the financial collapse of the economy in 2008-2009 hurt a lot of firms, and those firms are still recovering from unethical acts performed by banks, wall street, and government personnel, but letÃ¢â¬â¢s not forget that the way we treat our employees has a huge impact on, production, employee morals, customer satisfaction, and the firm itself. I hope to one day be in a management position so that I can make a difference in employees lives as it pertains to his/her work environment. I want to lend an ear, be open, be passive and assertive to get task done, and most importantly, understand that the backbone of the organization lies within a happy and productive employee. During my journey through this course, Organizational Behavior, I have learned the importance of understanding people from the standpoint of work ethic, cultural differences, and how different personalities play into how a organization blends its population and functions as a team. Although the book covers managing and leading people within organizations, proper decision making skills, and the political aspect of power within companies. I believe an effective manager that is trying to create job satisfaction for his/her workforce needs personal people skill, and an understanding of cultural differences. I believe these fundamental characteristics, especially people skill, are sorely lacking in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s job market of managers. The main focus of most managers today seems to lie with the financial wellbeing of the company rather than having a balance between finances and employee welfare. This course has taught me how to interact with people on a professional level. Sure, I may not get along with everyone and may not have all the answers when I am a manager, but treating everyone with dignity and respect far outweighs oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to make the bottom line look good. Besides, without a mentally healthy workforce, profits and success could be far out
Friday, November 8, 2019
The beast in Lord of the Flies essays (2) Trace the references to the beast in the novel. Try to parallel this with the diminishing sense of order on the island and the boys gradual embracing of Jacks savagery. What is the true nature of the beast on the island that Simon in unable to verbally define? In the novel, there are many references to the beast. Each one illustrates the gradual decline of humanity, and the rising of savagery. Simon is the only boy on the island who truly understands what is controlling the boys on this island, yet he cannot express his thoughts into words clearly, and ends up being killed for even trying. In the beginning, the fear of a "beastie" on the island first stems from a littlun with a distinctive marking, a "mulberry-colored birthmark" on his face, who says the beast comes out at night. Both Ralph and Jack, thinking these to be simply childish nightmares, comfort and more or less manage to convince everyone that there is no beast. It is this same mulberry birthmarked boy, who disappears after the boys' first fire burns out of control across the island. Even though he had probably died in the fire, his disappearance was something that no one had ever accounted for, as no one knew the exact answer. This would have probably led to further speculations about whether there is a beast on the island. Ralph still retains control of the boys, and manages to maintain order. Fear of the beast has not diminished. Instead, that fear has intensified in strength amongst the littluns. Simon brings this to Ralph and Jacks attention when he comments that the children are afraid of the beast as if the beastie or the snake-thing was real. Here, Ralph begins to take this problem more seriously, for he sees its potential to become a full-blown issue, and raises it at the next assembly. The beast has now become a topic of discussion during assembly and the boys now openly express their fears. Simon has bee...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
5 Environmental Consequences of Oil Spills Oil spills caused by damaged tankers, pipelines, or offshore oil rigs often result in immediate and long-term environmental damage that can last for decades. These are among the most notable areas of environmental damage caused by spills: Beaches, Marshlands, and Fragile Aquatic Ecosystems David McNewÃ / StringerÃ / Getty Images Oil spills coat everything they touch and become unwelcome but long-term parts of every ecosystem they enter. When an oil slick from a large spill reaches a beach, oil coats and clings to every rock and grain of sand. If the oil washes into coastal marshes, mangrove forests, or other wetlands, fibrous plants and grasses absorb oil, which can damage plants and make the area unsuitable as wildlife habitat. When oil eventually stops floating on the waters surface and begins to sink into the marine environment, it can have similar damaging effects on fragile underwater ecosystems, killing or contaminating fish and smaller organisms that are essential links in the global food chain. Despite massive clean-up efforts following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, for example, a 2007 study conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) found that 26,000 gallons of oil were still trapped in the sand along the Alaska shoreline. Scientists conducting the study determined that residual oil was declining at less than 4 percent annually. Birds StockbyteÃ¢â¬â¹Ã / Getty ImagesÃ Oil-covered birds are a universal symbol of environmental damage wreaked by oil spills. Some species of shore birds might escape by relocating if they sense danger in time, but sea birds that swim and dive for their food are most likely to be covered in oil following a spill. Oil spills also damage nesting grounds, potentially causing serious long-term effects on entire species. The 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon offshore oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, for example, occurred during prime mating and nesting season for many bird and marine species, and long-term environmental consequences of that spill wont be known for years. Oil spills can disrupt migratory patterns by contaminating areas where migrating birds normally stop. Even a small amount of oil can be deadly to a bird. By coating feathers, oil not only makes flying impossible but also destroys birds natural waterproofing and insulation, leaving them vulnerable to hypothermia or overheating. As birds frantically preen their feathers to restore their natural protections, they often swallow oil, which can severely damage their internal organs and lead to death. The Exxon Valdez oil spill killed from 250,000 to 500,000 seabirds, plus shore birds and bald eagles. Marine Mammals HandoutÃ / Getty Images Oil spills frequently kill marine mammals such as whales, dolphins, seals, and sea otters. Oil can clog blowholes of whales and dolphins, making it impossible for them to breathe properly and disrupting their ability to communicate. Oil coats fur of otters and seals, leaving them vulnerable to hypothermia. Even when marine mammals escape the immediate effects, an oil spill can contaminate their food supply. Marine mammals that eat fish or other food exposed to an oil spill may be poisoned by oil and die or experience other problems. The Exxon Valdez oil spill killed thousands of sea otters, hundreds of harbor seals, roughly two dozen killer whales, and a dozen or more river otters. In the years after the Exxon Valdez spill, scientists noted higher death rates among sea otters and other species affected by the spill and stunted growth or other damage among additional species. Fish Vstock LLCÃ / Getty ImagesÃ Oil spills often take a deadly toll on fish, shellfish, and other marine life, particularly if many fish eggs or larvae are exposed to oil. Shrimp and oyster fisheries along the Louisiana coast were among early casualties of the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Similarly, the Exxon Valdez spill destroyed billions of salmon and herring eggs. Years later those fisheries had not recovered. Wildlife Habitat and Breeding Grounds Julie DermanskyÃ / ContributorÃ / Getty Images Long-term damage to species and their habitats and nesting or breeding grounds is one of the most far-reaching environmental effects caused by oil spills. Even species that spend most of their lives at sea, such as various species of sea turtles, must come ashore to nest. Sea turtles can be harmed by oil they encounter in the water or on the beach where they lay their eggs, their eggs can be damaged by oil and fail to develop properly, and newly hatched turtles may be oiled as they scurry toward the ocean across an oily beach. Ultimately, the severity of environmental damage caused by an oil spill depends on many factors, including the amount of oil spilled, type and weight of oil, location of the spill, species of wildlife in the area, timing of breeding cycles and seasonal migrations, and even the weather at sea during and after the oil spill.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Identification report - Essay Example The office is a large room on the 3rd floor with minimalistic design. The writing table at the window is almost idle with TajewskiÃ¢â¬â¢s computer, a deed box and a phone on its surface. The cabinet standing on the left is filled with files and documents with the external hard drive of 2TB capacity and a flash drive of 15 GB capacity on the bottom shelf. First and foremost, it move on to access and check TajewskiÃ¢â¬â¢s computer for suspicious data. Having got a password from his manager, I launch file check in order to identify files that have any coincidences with those that have been stolen. The files need to be examined for any text matches with the stolen ones. Proceeding with the investigation, I detect and check all recent data including deleted files using a files recovery program (Handy Recovery): this will help me to identify if the suspect tried to dispose of the stolen property in this way. Recycler bin is also checked as well as all the folders requiring passwords. Going further, I check all the files in order to identify and collect the data that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t created on this computer and has no PC administratorÃ¢â¬â¢s signature. Setting the date filter on files, I sort out all the files that have been created or copied after the theft. All these files must be taken for an expertise to Champlain Forensics, Inc. At my our next step, I perform a detailed check of Mr. TajowskiÃ¢â¬â¢s mailings and contacts as it can give us a hint on his complicity for the crime (especially if there are attempts to sell the stolen property to a third party). I make a copy of the mailing history and the contact list. Having finished with the computer, I proceed with check of all external media present in the room. I check all the files on the flash drive as well as on the hard drive sorting them by the date and testing for text match. Next I
Friday, November 1, 2019
Distribution Systems - Essay Example They are carried to different areas to be distributed in different retail outlets. At times, the distribution centers are located near the bottling plants of Coca Cola. The objective of the distribution centre being near to the plant is easy transportation of the bottles into the carrying vans (Berry, Ã¢â¬Å"ColaLife MDCs and Coca Colas Manual Distribution SystemÃ¢â¬ ). Coca Cola endeavors that everyone should get to enjoy a sip of the Coca Cola drink, no matter where the person is located. For this, the company has a strong distribution system. The entire functioning of the distribution system is looked after by the distribution department. This department covers the purchase point, reaching to the final consumers, delivery, sales and warehousing in the supply chain of Coca Cola. Moreover, the distribution department has the responsibility of looking after the delivery of inventory in more than 8000 centres all over the world. There are four important core areas of the distribution department. These four important areas are Ã¢â¬â Consumer and Customer Service Systems, Managing Demand and Planning Operations, Infrastructure Planning and Development. The system of customer service and consumer is a way to develop a structure for executing strategies of consumers and customers. The purpose of this framework is to understand the needs and requirements of the customers. Customer is the king in the modern economy. The company wants to promote the strength of its brand through proper consumer and customer services. The system also intends to link the consumers with marketing mechanisms, logistics and warehousing. Distribution of products is pointless without a proper study of consumer demand. Consumer demand is arrived at by the application of quantitative tools. The Demand Management System links up all important stakeholders of the company like the distributors and the suppliers in the final
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Babies - Research Paper Example San Francisco is located in Northern California, and is considered a cultural hub. It is located at the tip of Pacific Cost, and has a hilly terrain that is beautiful to watch. The city is also a major attraction for tourist from all over the world. The population of the city is about 7.5 million people and is the most densely populated cities of United States (United States Census Bureau, 2012). San Francisco is a multi cultural society with many ethnicities, among which Whites, Asians, and Chinese are noteworthy. The main religious group of the region is of Catholic Christians but other religions are also practiced. Apartments are the main type of housing in the city. The infant mortality rate is low in San Francisco and average life expectancy is high. This is because of the better health care facilities available in the city. The literacy level of the city is also good compared to the rest of the cities of the country. Agricultural products are the main exports of California (California Department of Food and Agriculture, 2007). The city is also famous for its financial activities and research in different areas like biotechnology. The poverty rate of the city is lower than the average poverty rate of United States. Opuwo is a small city which is a located in Namibia. The city has a dry and mountainous terrain. The city is mainly inhabited by the Himba Tribe which is an ethnic group of the region. The main God of the Himba Tribe is Mukuru, although other Gods are also worshipped by the Himba Tribe (Crandall, 2000). The population of the Opuwo city is not very significant and is not more than a few thousand residents. Exact population is difficult to account for because of the lack of census in the region. The people of Opuwo live in small houses and huts. The infant mortality rate is high much like other African countries and average life expectancy is low. This is because of the lack of medical and health care facilities. The literacy level is
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Nursing Interventions for Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness in which individuals loose the ability to discriminate between reality and imagination, characterized by disturbances to their thoughts, behavior and feelings. About 1% of the population is predicted to suffer from schizophrenia at some point in their life (www.rethink.org), with experience of psychotic episodes such as those of schizophrenia ranging in their duration of a single crisis, to the chronic experience of schizophrenia over a life time. During episodes of schizophrenia, patients will experience a range of what is know as positive and negative symptoms associated with the condition. Positive symptoms include delusions and hallucinations and unusual or irrational behavior (often as a result of the hallucinations and delusions). Delusions can be defined as strange thoughts or beliefs which are not founded in reality, some examples include delusions of grandeur (such as believing oneself to be the next messiah) and delusions of persecution (as in being secretly watched / followed by the police or secret service). Hallucinations are when you see (visual) hear (auditory) or smell (olfactory) things that others cannot. One of the most well known symptoms of schizophrenia is that of hearing voices. People may also experience thought disturbances such as thought jumping (going from one line of thought to another in rapid succession) poor concentration and attention abilities (www.mind.org.uk). Negative symptoms are those which in some way take away from the individual such as anhedonia (not getting pleasure out of activities which were previously pleasurable) and social withdrawal from social situations and a lack of interest in personal hygiene (such as not washing or changing clothes). Treatment of individuals with schizophrenia can be in hospital (forced through section or voluntarily in some cases) and in community settings, and should involve a mixture of pharmacological treatment (typical and atypical antipsychotic medications) and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in order to manage current symptoms, and in preventing and minimizing future relapse and crises. Nursing of individuals with a severe mental illness such as schizophrenia within a community setting (e.g. after discharge from hospital or when patients not under section and do not want to go to hospital) will be conducted by a community psychiatric nurse (CPN) who will often be working within a community mental health team (CMHT) from a care programme approach. The role of the CPN has diversified over recent years, and is now often nominated within the CMHT to act as the individuals key worker (i.e. who the patient will have most contact with in the CMHT). CPNs can be seen to be involved in patient care interventions in a number of capacities. The most predominant (and traditional) intervention role of the CPN may be seen in the medication management of people with schizophrenia. Typical (haloperidol) and atypical (aripiprazole, olanzapine etc) antipsychotic medication use now mean that around 70% of patients will experience some degree of relief to their psychotic symptoms (McCann, 2001). However relief is most often not absolute and the majority of patients will experience some form of side effects. In typical (older generation drugs) this is often in terms of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) such as movement disorders like Tardive Dyskinsia, and although newer atypical drugs are renowned for less EPS, side effects can include weight gain, sexual dysfunction and sedation. CPNs are therefore an important contact with the patient in ensuring that they are taking their medication correctly, and in identifying patients who may be experiencing high levels of side effects who as a result are at a high risk of discontinuing their medications. By identifying such individuals, relapse can be minimized by helping the patient to engage with clinical services to investigate other medication options of which there are a good number. Switching is a term used by professionals to define this process and it is not unusual for patients to have to switch between medications a number of times, before finding the most appropriate drug / combination. Dosage required is also a very individual factor, and therefore an important aspect of medication management is to check to signs that dosage is high enough to enable clinical relief, but also low enough to minimize side effects. CPNs are thus often in a position to recognize if their patients are not on high enough dosages. The way in which medication is administered will also differ between patients some may be able to take their drugs orally, but a number of patients with schizophrenia are on a form of drug administration called depots. These are long-lasting injections of the antipsychotic, and are often used for patients who suffer severe episodes and those who have a history of non-compliance in taking their medication (Jackson-Koku, 2001). CPNs may also act in helping people come to terms with the fact that they are suffering from an illness, as denial is common in those mental illnesses such as schizophrenia (Fung Fry, 1999), often referred to as lacking insight into illness, and so discuss the need for taking their medications. Providing medication related information is therefore an important part of the medication interventions that nurses are involved with, and will often include discussions about side effects, recognizing early signs of illness and other concerns the person may have. Nurses are however becoming increasingly involved in psycho-educational (Fung Fry, 1999) and psychological therapy (McCann, 2001) based interventions in their patient care within community settings for sufferers and their families. Such approaches have in the literature, been described as aiming at increasing social functioning, decreasing distress, and reducing hospital admission rates (Tarrier Birchwood, 1995) These educational interventions are so targeted on helping to reduce distress in more drug-resistant cases, to help both sufferers and their family (Leff et al, 2001) deal with the illness and learn the signs of relapse and symptom return, and as mentioned above, in increasing medication compliance through better understanding and information. (McCann, 2001) Psychological therapies such as CBT and cognitive therapy (CT) have found recognized success in treating many mental illnesses including schizophrenia including when used within community settings (Morrison et al, 2004), as are aimed at helping people deal emotionally with their illness and its associated distress, but also to help on a practical level through promoting relapse prevention strategies and reducing social disability (Fowler, Garety Kuipers, 1995) Coping techniques and strategies can also be discussed when CPNs become aware and gain knowledge into what particular symptoms are causing people most distress. One example of this could be distraction techniques discussed with those who are having problems with auditory hallucinations; one method that is known for helping many people with this is to listen to music. CPNs often also play an important counseling role to those they support (royal college of psychiatrists,1997). Acting as key workers for people with schizophrenia gives many CPNs the opportunity to get to know the person, and so are in a position to use the discussions they have with their patients in an intervention capacity. Counseling may help in anxiety and distress reduction, but also will provide invaluable insight for the CPN into what the person is going through, how much they understand and whether they are doing well or becoming ill. All this information will play a crucial role in the assessment capacity that the CPN also performs within the care programme. CPNs are thus seen to be involved in many aspects of peoples outpatient care in community settings. Especially involved in medication, information and more recently psychosocial and psychological interventions, nurses looking after people with schizophrenia within the community are central to the patients care programme, and act as an invaluable access into mental health services (McCann Clark, 2003) for community patients.