Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Ehtical and legal perspectives Essay

When policemen take their Oath of Office, it signifies a transformation of their status from being civilians into full pledged members of the law enforcement. Part of this transition is to observe some strict ethical standards that could undermine or strengthen their roles in an investigation. Among the ethical standards that must be observed is the ethics of lying during an interrogation of a suspect. An officer may use a small piece of evidence and would convince the suspect that such piece of evidence would link the suspect to the crime he is accused of. How far can an officer go such as lie to a suspect in order to elicit a response during an interrogation process? The results in the long run of continuous deception of police officers to suspects during the interrogation process can be detrimental to our society as these tears out the social fabric that binds our law enforcement with civil society. As a result, juries tend to become skeptical of police testimonies even on the instances that the police are telling the truth. In the United States, there are about six thousand false convictions for felonies every year (Huff et al, â€Å"Guilty Until Proven Innocent,† Crime & Delinquency, vol. 32, pages 518-44, 1986) and that police deceptions are one of the major causes of the rise of conviction of innocent persons. Moreover, under the McDade Law passed on October of 1998, federal prosecutors are required to comply with state ethics law in order to force federal law enforcement agencies to use deceptive tactics and forcing suspects to confess or elicit responses from their questions. The issues involved when the officer lies to the suspect during interrogation lies in the core values of justice system which expects the observance of ethical behaviors such as honesty and justice as well as equality. There’s also a large difference between ethical and legal issues. Ethical issues may be considered legal but unethical whereas legal actions may not also be always ethical.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Background of the Study Essay

In the recent years, mobile phone usage has been in its rapid growth. 80% of the world’s population now has a mobile phone. Based on the statistics, there are 5 billion mobile phones in the world out of which only 1. 08 billion are smartphones. According to the research compiled by GfK Asia, smartphones have taken over the market for mobile handsets in Southeast Asia. Also GfK Asia says that in countries like Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines and Cambodia, growth in smartphone use year over year ranged from 40% to as high as 400%. The smartphones market in the Philippines grew the fastest among Southeast Asian countries over the past year, which also recorded the fastest increase in market share versus feature phones. Most of the mobile phones nowadays are addressed as â€Å"Smartphone†; because they just not only provide original telephone features, but also various functions that can be done with other devices, such as PDAs or computers. Along with the smartphone fundamental capabilities to make voice call, video call, SMS, and MMS, smartphone have been repositioned as a ? new information medium (May & Hearn, 2005). These new functions make smartphones different from regular feature phones. Therefore, the society has slowly moved their cell phone purchasing decision to smartphone (Min, et al. , 2012). Smartphone technology is inevitably changing peoples’ behaviors; especially young adults using smartphone frequently today. CourseSmart, which is the world‘s largest provider of digital course materials and eTextbooks, found that university students can‘t go long without checking their digital devices, including smartphone, laptop and more (CourseSmart, 2011) University students are very in to checking their accounts in Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or even sending emails etc. using smartphone with their web connection feature. Today, students are using their smartphones for nearly everything and they consume mobile information almost everywhere that allows them. Therefore, consumers are highly concern with technologies that they might change their devices from time to time. In other words, due to the advancement of technology devices can be easily replaced. Hence, for the smartphone manufacturers it is essential to know what factors that actually affecting purchase intention of smartphone among young adults.

Fast Food Culture Essay

People eat fast food when they don’t have enough time to afford themselves a fine delicious meal due to busy work or study. Fast food keeps them from the trouble of cooking and saves them large amount of time. Along with the development of economy, people of the 21st century are entering an era of fast rhythm called â€Å"fast food era†. The name â€Å"fast food era† is derived from the term â€Å"fast food†, describing a time in which pace and efficiency are excessively highly emphasized. Fast food not only represent less time to eat, but also refers the world are rush that people lose patiences to look clearly of themselves who consumed too many stuff, however they didn’t really satisfy. Fast food culture is now extending to all aspects of modern life. Once there was a survey indicating that in South Korea, nearly a half of office staff set speed as one of the important standards in work. They enjoyed the pleasure of fast working while could barely putting up with â€Å"Mr. Slow†. Besides working area, fast food culture can be also found in the field of knowledge and education. On the sales ranking lists of online bookstores like Amazon and kindle, books with the striking names as â€Å"how to †¦..† can be easily found. These books teach readers the crash courses to master a skill after thumping through dozens of pages. Classics are compressed into thin books or movies. People can digest a classic even within two or three hours which in the past, could never be possible. Stunningly still, â€Å"fast food culture† is penetrating into the sacred turf of love and marriage. Speed dating is rather popular in china nowadays. Recent years has witnessed the springing up of matchmaking programs in china like â€Å"If You Are the One†, â€Å"Take Me out† and so on. On these programs, a young man and a young lady both know nothing about each other before the TV programs start care quickly matched within 20 minutes on spot. Many young people get married after meeting each other for several weeks or even a few days. This phenomenon is called â€Å"flash marriage† or â€Å"lightning marriage†. A survey released by Virgin Media aiming at 1,968 adults from England examined their speed at eating, spending money and having sex. The result revealed that scores of them are bolting down their evening meal in less than ten minutes. Others are hurrying through love-making in just two minutes. Workers are also frittering their monthly wages well before their next payday. Psychologist Honey Langcaster-James said â€Å"we are now living at a â€Å"crazy pace†Ã¢â‚¬ . The question is, are we really happy about this fast-paced, constantly changing world? Do we really enjoy life in itself? China’s urban quality of life index report issued by the Chinese Academy of Economy and the Capital Economy and Trade University reveals the life quality indexes of 30 provincial capital cities. The index report indicates that life quality of Beijing is far lower than that of other cities like Guangzhou, Nanjing, Yinchuan, although the pace of life in Beijing ranks the first. Dwellers in Beijing feel less happy but much more stressed than those in other capital cities. Thus, we may reach the conclusion that fast-paced life and the pure pursuit of material wealth can not bring us real happiness. But what makes us unhappy and how to find the key to happiness? Philosophy provides us the answer. â€Å"The unexamined life is not worth living.† â‘  the famous philosopher of ancient Greece Socrates once said. He believed man should reflect on himself with a critical attitude. Without self-reflection, life can not be regarded as complete. People living in modern society are deprived of the time to contemplate themselves and many other things. They race through life at a breakneck speed, without being able to appreciate the beauty of life itself. This is why they easily lose their mind in the fast changing world and feel unhappy or depressed under many circumstances. â€Å" Be as you wish to see† â‘ ¡ â€Å"Know thyself.† â€Å"Worthless people live only to eat and drink; people of worth eat and drink only to live.† â€Å"The secret of happiness, you see, is not found in seeking more, but in developing the capacity to enjoy less.†Ã¢â€˜ ¢ Socrates then gave us the solution. He told us we should get to know ourselves, know who we really are and what we really want. This would help us in our pursuit of real happiness without being striving for the wrong thing. Socrates also enlightened us that we should hold a dialectical attitude towards man’s seeking for material wealth. We human beings have unlimited want in material, which is something we are born with. However, too much desire for material wealth may bring us anxiety and worry. Liu An, a famous figure of imperial linage of the Western Han Dynasty, wrote in the masterpiece Huai Nan Zi, â€Å"trouble comes from excessive desire†. â‘ £ So we should allow ourselves to seek for material fortune properly in order to satisfy our needs, but we shouldn’t let this want for material wealth turn into a crazy avarice. Thus we need to control our desire and also understand the secret of happiness, namely â€Å"happiness does not lie in seeking more, but in developing the capability to enjoy less.† Ancient Chinese political theorists Mencius happened to hold the same belief. He once said â€Å"there’s no greater idea than abnegating one’s desire to keep inner peace.† â‘ ¤ The remarkable emperor of the ancient Rome Marcus Aurelius, who was also a great philosopher, wrote a book named the Meditations. This book is the production of his deep contemplation on human life which gives us a lot of sagacious advice about life. â€Å"After all, there should be some leisure in life†, Marcus Aurelius wrote in his book.â‘ ¥ Nowadays, people live in bustling cities, busying working and studying. While in the deep of their minds, seldom are there any people know what they really want. Most of them care much about gains and losses, fame and fortune, which makes them live very tired everyday. They should have time to reflect on their behaviors and moral ethic, adjust themselves before stepping into the next phase of life. Most people are suffering agonies in their life. The agonies, Marcus Aurelius thought, come from their discontent of power, money and fame. Their endless desire for power, fame and money lies on their shoulders like a piece of heavy stone. What they should do is to alleviate the burdens, stop being obsessed by fame and fortune and keep inner peace. Only by doing this, can people remove worries and live happily. Life is not a race, but a journey to be savored each step of the way. So stop hurrying to seek for fortune and fame. Excessively Fast-paced life only lessens your feelings of happiness and creates the illusion of fear. Slow down your pace, spare your mind some time to contemplate on your behaviors and appreciate the beauty of the world you are living in. drop the electric books, Read a paper book word by word, line by line, page by page, you’ll find the sparkling thoughts of the author, maybe an there will be an emotional resonance between you and the author. Give away fast food; cook a meal with your beloved one. Taste every dish carefully and slowly, you’ll discover the fragrance of food, and you’ll also taste the love of your wife. Slow down your pace when you are traveling, walk into the narrow street that you didn’t even pay attention to and stop for a plain little flower growing on the roadside, you’ll be surprised at the unique beauty of it. That is also a beauty granted by our mother nature. Spend more time with the girl you plan to have a relationship with; you will get to know her better and better. Her merits and shortcomings will be all exposed before you. Then make a decision whether you should stay with her or not. This is much better than a flash marriage after a tree days’ acquaintance and then you already begin to regret for your hasty decision. Life is short. You never know what may happen tomorrow. Thereforeï ¼Å' it is important to enjoy today. Of course, some people will say that’s why it is important to concentrate a lot of things into a day and live a fast-paced life. If then, how would you possibly have time to enjoy all of those experiences? By doing a few things slowly and doing them well, you can savor the experience and get satisfaction in the process. Haste makes waste. We can’t rush through things mechanically like machines do. If we do, we might forget something; we might take shortcuts. By taking our time, we can do a chore carefully, completely, and correctly. If we could made life slow down; see ourselves clearly, we could gain the great connection with ourselves. In the Buddhism, when they wake up; they starts have question for whole day that is what I really want; if I dead tomorrow, what are we going to do. We may regard after we miss the really motion, relationship and even ourselves. We should stop to catch shadow which is the stuff go around our life; we should keep the inner emotion and thought. Civilization starts philosophy and question, people own the thought to create art and the form of universal. Are we go backward with civilization? It seems like we carry a pot of flowers; we lose the flower in the road; but we hold the pot. Quote a famous verse written by Tao Yuanming, the famous writer of the Chinese Eastern Jin Dynasty here,â€Å"neath the Eastern fence My gaze upon the Southern mountain rests; The mountain views are good by day or night, The birds come flying homeward to their nests. A truth in this reflection lies concealed, But I forget how it may be revealed.†. â‘ ¦ People walk around to gather water in a cup. People didn’t know and recognize cup already full, because their heart didn’t full. They thought the cup still empty. Therefore, they keep infuse water into that. It talks about human condition, they have empty mind how could they know something? Do the master of yourself, not the society. Gives up the fast food, let us starts a real life. Citizen 1. Leibowitzï ¼â€ David. 2010. The Ironic Defense of Socrates: Plato’s Apology [M]. Cambridge University Press. 2.†Socrates.† Xplore Inc, 2012. 23 October 2012. 3. â€Å"Socrates.† Xplore Inc, 2012. 23 October 2012. 4. 5. 6.Marco Aurelius. 2009. Meditation [M]. BiblioLife,LLC. 7.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Leslie Fay Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Leslie Fay Case Study - Essay Example The essay "Leslie Fay Case Study" tries to deeper understand what happened at the Leslie Fay Companies by analyzing the business organization. The first four are geared in the strategic aspect of the firm. Prior to the audit failure, Leslie Fay’s mission is to design, manufacture, and sell moderately priced and stylishly conservative women’s dresses. The company’s product lines are targeted to women aged 30-55 years old. Even though indirectly stated, the company has no plan of changing its products in order to cope with the emerging trends. The company opts to stick with its current fashion statement. In order to pursue its vision of staying on top on the industry, Leslie Fay utilizes a strategy of designing and manufacturing products by trusting the instincts of the designers. It should be noted that as opposed to other industry players which rely on customer preference, the business organization opted to create what is fashionable for the customer. The whole marketing mix of Leslie Fay can be stated as offering fashionable clothing at a moderate price in department stores and enhancing a customer experience by offering seasonal discounts. Armed with this strategy, Leslie Fay captures its market niche and creates strong brand equity. In terms of financing, the firm relies both on liabilities and equities. It can be recalled that Leslie Fay banked on its prominence and profitability and went public in as early as 1952. The technology is seen as insignificant in the operation of Leslie Fay.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Discuss the influence of business over local governments services and Essay

Discuss the influence of business over local governments services and regulatory activities - Essay Example re the monopolies became highly influencing bodies in the terms of social, political, regional and cultural segments of the economies (Eatwell and Wright, 1999). Giant firms across different sectors started to influence the decision of the public authorities in favor of them. Red-tapism, corruption and bribery became common in the bureaucratic segments of most of the nations of the world. The private monopolistic giant firms in the market started to grasp large portions of the consumer surplus in the market by influencing the decisions of the governments. It is only after the era of globalization, when the political sectors of most of the economies were decentralized. Under this regime, the local governments and the regional institutions were allocated with some sort of regulatory powers. The local governments were entitled to check on the scale and the scope of business activities in their respective local regions (Tucker, 2010). This paper will through light on the influence of the business firms on the various activities of the local government’s services as well as its regulatory activities (Jonas and Wood, 2013). The paper will emphasize on the numerous ways (like campaign funding and lobbying and bribing) through which the business firms can influence the decisions of the local governments (Feenstra and Taylor, 2008). The context of the paper also explains the different ways in which the actions of the local governments in the modern days are undertaken in favor of the corporate companies (focusing the Euro Area). The analysis in the conclusion states that local governments in the current epoch often behave irrationally by favoring the corporate organizations as the influence of such organizations on their activities are huge. There is no doubt about this fact that local governments have substantially influenced the operations of the business organizations. However, the case and effect factors in this context are just the opposite. It is true that in the

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Science in my world Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Science in my world - Essay Example One key concept is called the sequential summation of movement in which heavier objects are able to increase the speed at which smaller attached objects move ( For this reason, the pitcher’s bodily movements are a critical component to how fast the ball will be released and thrown towards the hitter. If the pitcher’s momentum through using his legs to push off of the mound is at a greater force, so too should be the force and speed at which the ball is released as long as the arms, shoulders and hand release the ball at the optimum position during the movement. Another key component to baseball has been the explosion of curve balls and the extent to which a ball can be thrown straight but through its overall release the ball can actually curve away from the straight-line pathway. A scientific research study tested whether a curve ball actually does curve and â€Å"the results indicated that it is possible to make a ball curve as much as 18 inches away from a straight line within a distance of 60 feet, six inches† ( Through gripping the baseball a particular way and releasing the ball with the right controlled movements, a pitcher is able to make a ball travel in a straight pathway but curve after enough full revolutions have been completed. All of this is very interesting because it changes how the game can be viewed and alters how players should play the game. If careful analysis is performed and a critique of physical movements is made, science can help all players and coaches perform at the optimum level possible . "Science of Baseball: Putting Something on the Ball: Page 1." Exploratorium: the Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception. Web. 22 Sept. 2010.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Consumer Behavior and the Marketing Manager Personal Statement

Consumer Behavior and the Marketing Manager - Personal Statement Example This is called marketing mix in which the business focuses on the price, promotion, product and place. This further brings in the concept of market segmentation which is dividing the market into segments according to the preferences of the consumers. Different people have different interests over products; segmentation helps the businesses to focus on the consumers’ wants individually, makes them aware of what kind of products are in demand so that they can stock them and sell more. The internet is one of the most basic tools being used for advertising goods and this is mostly because it is far reaching and does not cost as much. Considering the great amount of people who are using the internet these days, even shopping online, the businesses prefer this means of marketing. Whenever one goes online on any social media site, a new brand name of some company pops up, show casing their line of products and it just so easy and convenient for one to look into it and maybe order it if one likes it. Similarly, there can be other ways of advertising like billboards at places which are most visited or television advertisements between shows which are most

Thursday, July 25, 2019

The case study will be send by file .pdf Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The will be send by file .pdf - Case Study Example Offering the employees with low food cost menu which are also known as â€Å"freebies† during their shifts can help to deter these employees from eating higher food cost items. Not using Consistent Portion Control- For keeping the business profitable, portions should be controlled with, consistent storage sizes, calibrated food scales and correct sized serving utensils Wasting Food- Utilizing maximum quantity of food can help to decrease food cost percentage. For example beef trimmings from the tenderloins can be purposefully used into satay beef tips, which can be sold as moderate entry special. Buying Food for Home- Using food from the kitchen restaurant instead from the grocery store on a regular basis will skew food costs and profits. Bulk pricing helps to use food for a personal use and also pay it back. Poor Staff Education- employees who burn food, does not practice portion control or rotating food according to first in first out basis will definitely increase the food cost percentage. Poor Bookkeeping- food suppliers often make mistakes on invoice like charging double of the amount , not reflecting the payments made or delivering the food that is listed on invoice. Weekly food orders should be checked to ensure all of it is accounted for and also matches the invoice. Copies of all the payments made and invoices should be properly stored in case of any disputes. Using only one Food Vendor- Prices offered by different vendors should be compared and asked for a match. 2. Do you think that the beverage cost percentage might be rising or falling? Why? The beverage cost percentage will rise because it is directly proportional to the cost percentage of food which is also rising. 3. What issues might Jack be discovering with the inventory levels in the central stores and Preparation kitchen stores? Inventory control is an important way to ensure that the appropriate products are available when required and to control cost. Two types of inventory methods are required: Perpetual inventory- It is a continuous record of the purchases and deliveries and issues of food supply. A system involving the use of computer program needs to be in place to ensure that a perpetual inventory is maintained. Physical inventory- It is an actual physical count of the product in hand that is done on a periodic basis usually monthly. Physical inventory helps to verify perpetual inventory. Someone else who maintains the perpetual inventory does not maintain the physical inventory. Jack might have faced the following problem with the inventory levels in the central stores and preparation kitchen stores: Central stores do not compare the changes in the beginning and ending inventory to net purchases, issues and write offs because the inventory management system is not programmed to generate reliable reports of the total purchases from the vendors. The systems also do not generate any report of the total issues to the departments which needs to be reconciled with the ending inventory. There is also no evidence of the fact that the comptrollers has verified that the accounting records match with the annual purchases and issues because summary of the general ledger reports that account for storeroom inventory issues are not generated by the accounting system. The ending inventory also do not account for the city wide purchase order. The accounting syste

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Project Management Module Coursework Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Project Management Module Coursework - Essay Example The cost information that would be necessary would be in terms of the length of the project, the total costs of the project, the efforts of the staff that is Person: Days Ratio. The cost information could be obtained from the use of the standards and measurements sections. We can ensure that costs are in line with the estimates by making frequent comparisons with the actual costs with the estimates. The aspects of standard costing could also be established with respects to costs, recoveries and efficiency studies. Question 1C: The choice for selection of project manager is being considered, In this connection, it is necessary to appoint a person with IT background, since it is nowadays, a crucial aspect of project management, and IT is very much necessary for application in industry situations. Moreover, it is also seen that effective business solutions, especially in the areas of Project Management, is inextricably linked with IT, Question 1D: The Baseline metrics could be seen in terms of Development productivity, unit costs and lapsed time/unit. .In terms of development productivity, it measures one unit of effort could result in how many products. The unit costs could measure the amount of cost needed to produce one unit of product. The lapsed time per unit would be in terms of the time taken to produce one unit. Question 2: A: The activity on arrow is a simple and easily understandable diagram which is also amenable to corrections. Even a non-technical person could follow these diagrams and understand the path of the network. It is also seen that the major achievements are easily marked and even in cases where there are multiple relationships between processes, the AoA diagrammatic representation is easier to understand. Question 2 B: A dummy activity is one which is representative of a dependency but which has no time allotment, that means it could be carried simultaneously with another activity and therefore has 0 duration. The

Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 13

Economics - Essay Example Trade unions are frequently charged of benefiting the insider workers, those having a secure job as well as high efficiency, at the cost of the outsider workers, those who are jobless or at the risk of joblessness or who are not find to get the job that they want in a particular field. The alleged insider-outsider theory studies this problem. Usually, the trivial benefit of an additional worker decreases as the number of workers raise. This entails that the lower the minimum wage, the more workers a company can gainfully employ. Consequently, while an augment in the minimum wage benefits the insiders, consequently fewer new workers are employed and fewer retiring workers reinstated. This effect is more marked in a work-intensive service company (Baker, (2002). The economic examination of a cartel applies totally to most unions, to those that struggle to fix the price of work, to limit supply or to limit rivalry. Conversely, unions often have also other jobs than those of a cartel: they may counsel the workers, warn concerning detrimental contracts or terms of employment etc. These latter purposes are typically considered as valuable for both the workers and for the society all together, whereas the opposite applies to cartel-type minimum terms. Frequently the union on a particular industry puts pressure on politicians to finance the industry concerned. This promotes the companies, workers, shareholders as well as consumers of the product of that industry at a cost to other people. As a result, it depends on the question whether the welfare of a trade union are for or in opposition to the interests of the companies, unemployed, workers, tax-payers or the society all together. Small unions have grown to enormous size; a huge new federation has developed; and now the old American Federation of Labor and its late rival, the

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Document Based Quesiton (AP World History) Essay

Document Based Quesiton (AP World History) - Essay Example In 2002, then US Treasury Secretary Paul O’Neill claims that the World Bank gave Africa $300 million in loans (as reported by BBC news, 28 May 2002). This staggering amount is just part of the reason why the countries of South Africa have accumulated so much debt. One should simply realize that the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), while being international financial institutions, are actually largely controlled by the government of rich countries, like US and Britain (Africa Action website, 2005). While these creditors do provide aid and new loans to Africa, the hapless people of the region are forced to pay more money to them in a vicious cycle of debt. Thus, these creditors are able to wield significant influences over Africa’s economy and the region’s future. It is thus no great wonder why, despite these huge foreign debt, Africa barely has enough to properly supply its people with basic commodities such as food and clean water (O’Neill, 2002). To add insult to obvious injury, Africa is simply up to its neck in epidemic diseases, with AIDS being a major health concern of many countries in the continent. Information from UNAIDS (2000) signify that a great majority of the country is infected, thus resulting to more than 11 million children orphaned by AIDS and an equally significant amount being infected by the disease (UN, 2004). Perhaps the saddest point of this issue is the fact that amidst all these problems, civil unrest still pervade the region (Copson, Africa’s Wars and Prospects for Peace). While children are being orphaned by AIDS, parents lose their children to the never ending wars in the continent, as children are being recruited to serve either as soldiers or perform noncombatant roles both for the government and for the rebels (Amnesty International, 2005). The good thing that may be coming out of all these is that the rest of the world does not just sit back and watch Africa suffer

Monday, July 22, 2019

Environmental Science Essay Example for Free

Environmental Science Essay Towards the end of the second millennium, particularly the 18th and 19th centuries, rapid changes occurred across the economic fabric of the world. Various industries underwent mechanization, transportation infrastructure improved to facilitate the expansion of trade, and steam power dramatically enhanced production and mobility. Manual labor was supplanted or enhanced by machines in the manufacturing industries, whilst increased production lead to increased consumption of natural resources and greater material abundance across the classes. Brown (2003) observes that at the foundation of this period, historically referred to as the Inustrial Revolution, was a shift in sources of energy from wood to fossil fuel. The exponential energy gain to be had from such a shift translated to the expansion of economic activity. The Industrial Revolution did not stop there though. Rather, the Industrial Revolution was a continuous process of economic expansion that resulted in a transformation of how natural resources were viewed. While concerns had already been raised since the 17th century about the use of natural resources for economic activity, industrialization spread the casual acceptance of natural resources as capital. (Peterson del Mar, 2006) In effect, the Industrial Revolution impacted the environment by disseminating economical assumptions about the value of natural resources, and magnified the rate at which resources were being consumed. Under the lens of industrial capitalism, trees have no value unless logged, rivers and streams have no value unfished and wildlife have no value unharvested. As such, there was little in the way of popular resistance against the use of natural resources for commerce and industry. It was deemed that the improvement of human civilization necessitated the harvesting of wildlife, the logging of forests, the expansion of fisheries and the industrialization of agriculture. As mentioned above, concern for environmental welfare dates back to the 17th century. Some of this concern for environmental welfare came from upper-class urban dwellers, who felt that the conditions of city living disconnected them from the spiritual nourishment of nature’s aesthetic. The other source of concern came from scientists and economists who felt that resource conservation and protection was necessary to ensure continued economic health. However, Environmentalism as a movement or revolution did not fully come into being until the 20th century. (Peterson del Mar, 2006) While technology and industrialization grew to become a defining feature of not just commerce and industry but modern living, there was also an increase in the anxiety over their potential effects on the cultural and natural landscape. For many, the tipping points that took environmental sentiment towards movement and/or revolution were the publication of books such as Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring and Paul Ehrlich’s The Population Bomb. Both writers took a good look at the environmental impacts of modern life – Carson examined the health impacts and environmental consequences of the indiscriminate use of DDT as a pesticide, while Ehrlich questioned the ability of economic expansion and use of natural resources could outpace the demands of a growing population – and ultimately, both of them provoked examination into the relationship between man and environment in the industrial age.   The result was increased interest in environmental problems and the formation of various environmental groups designed to pressure industry and commerce to take environmental matters seriously. In the 21st century, it will be necessary for environmentalism to persist, not just as a fashionable lifestyle or an alternative form of consumption, but as a means to examine whether modern life is not just sustainable or desirable. Environmentalism is not a spiritual or moral issue, but a practical one that encourages us to redesign industry, commerce and personal living to be more than just desirable but sustainable and eternal.   REFERENCES Peterson del Mar, D. (2006) A short history of a big idea: Environmentalism. Pearson Education Limited: Essex, England. Brown, L.R. (2003) Eco-Economy: Building an Econom

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Health Status Indicators for Populations in New Zealand

Health Status Indicators for Populations in New Zealand Amy A. Bulseco Identify four current health status indicators for three diverse groups from national and international perspective. New Zealand Children One of the target groups of the Ministry of Health are the children of age group 0- 14 years. The early stages of life are one of the most important factors that one has to consider in health because it determines how healthy adulthood and advanced age would be (Ministry of Health 2012). Research conducted by the Ministry of Health on health programs are used to address certain issues of specific population groups. Obesity is one of the health indicators identified for the New Zealand Children: It was identified that 10% of children under the age 2-14 years old in New Zealand are obese and this constitutes about 91,000 children in the population. While, two in ten (21%) children aged 2-14 y/o were overweight but not obese or an estimated number of 184,000 children. Obesity has become prevalent due to modernization as children spend more time indoor watching television and more children opt now to eating chips and drinking sodas. Obesity is the result of unbalanced physical activity and metabolism between excessive food and drinks intake (Food and Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Young People 2-18 y/o, 2012). Unmet needs for primary health care About 20% of children age 0-14 year old experienced unmet need for primary healthcare for the past 12 months. This composes of 180,000 children in the year 2011-2012 (The Health of New Zealand Children 2011-2012). Unmet primary healthcare need may mean that there is a possibility that a child’s condition can worsen if not treated promptly (MOH 2012). New Zealanders with Intellectual Disability There is 0.7% or a total of 31,847 identified as persons having intellectual disability. The group comprises of those with cognitive impairment early in life and those who developed it at a more advance age. Persons with disability tend to have poorer health outcomes than the rest of the population (MOH 2011). Chronic Health Conditions: Respiratory Disease Respiratory disease, together with coronary disease, is the leading cause of death of people among persons with intellectual disability. There are 7,060 or 22% are diagnosed and are receiving treatment for respiratory disease such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease like emphysema (MOH 2011). Respiratory disease is preventable through proper and regular screening. There is no known form of screening among people with intellectual disability in New Zealand. There are also evidences that other form of screening are inequitably delivered overseas (MOH, December 2013) Maori It is said that in Maori culture, suicide or whakamomori is not sanctioned except in time of grief. It was not prevalent among pre-contact Maori society because it is believed that strong family ties and social structures protect them against suicide. Maori’s youth have higher rates of suicide than the older Maori due to the possibility that they perform a positive role of integration to their whanau and hapu (Durie, 2001). Suicide On the data gathered on The Suicide Facts by Ministry of Health there are 549 deaths due to suicide in 2012. Maori has highest suicide cases of 120 deaths or 21.9%. In the age standard suicide rate there are 17.8 per 100,000 Maori population compare to 10.6 per 100,000 in non-Maori group. Maori youth suicide remains consistently high and is 1.7 times more likely to commit suicide than non- Maori group. Maori population tends to suffer more health and socioeconomic challenges compare to the non-Maori population. Risk factors for Maori which are associated with suicide like social and educational disadvantage, unhappy family and childhood background, mental health problem and recent life crises (Durie, 2001). The World Health Organization is the leader in promoting, monitoring and coordinating body on international health within the United Nations. They are basically working on five areas like health systems, non-communicable diseases, promoting health through life course, communicable diseases, corporate services and preparedness, surveillance and response. As a part WHO’s role in preparedness, surveillance and response they do risk assessment, help countries prepare for, respond to and recover from emergency due to hazard that pose a threat to human health security. Syria The WHO has categorized the Arab Syrian Republic health crisis as â€Å"Grade 3† or most serious humanitarian emergency thus requiring lot of help from several organizations. In 2011 there are 190,000 people killed, 1 million injured and 6.5 million who are displaced (WHO, WHO and health partners responding to the Syrian Arab Republic health tragedy, 2014) Syrian Children (0-5 y/o) Syria’s population is 21,898,000 in the year 2013 (WHO, World Health Statistics , 2015). The United Nations has said that 12.2 million are in need of humanitarian assistance and this includes 5.6 million children. Investigators have accused the rebels as well as the government itself that as a method of war it has blocked access to water, food and healthcare services. (Roger, 2015) Malnutrition Findings on the status of nutrition in Syrian children from 2007-2014 identified that there are 27.5% who are stunted, 11.5% are wasted, 10.5% are underweight while there are 17.9% of overweight children. (WHO, 2015). An increase of undernourished children predisposes them to health problems. The status of nutrition also indicates the country’s socioeconomic status. Stunting is described as low height for age or the failure to reach linear growth due to suboptimal level of health or nutritional condition. High levels of stunting signify poor socioeconomic conditions such as illness and inappropriate feeding. 5% 65% prevalence is common among less developed countries. Wasting or thinness which was described as low weight for height is a severe process of weight loss due to severe disease, acute starvation or due to chronic unfavorable condition. Above 5% prevalence is alarming because the possibility of mortality may follow. An occurrence of wasting bet 10-14% is regarded as serious. (WHO, Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition, 2015) Immunization status for children 1 year and below Measles immunization status among Syrian children showed considerable drop from 84% in 2000 to 61% in 2013. Other immunization like DPT3 (Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus toxoid) only covered 41% of children. 41% of the children were immunized with Hib3 (Haemophilus Influenza type B) and 71% were vaccinated for HepB3 (Hepatitis B). Immunization reduces the risk of increase mortality rate among children especially those diseases that can be prevented through vaccines. The Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 is dedicated in strengthening routine immunization to meet vaccination target, prevent millions of death by making vaccines more accessible to the communities, increase the control of preventable diseases and spur the research for future vaccines. (WHO, Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals:Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020, 2015) General Syrian Population Mortality Morbidity The recorded deaths due to all causes per 100,000 Syrian are 28,718 in the year 2012. The highest reason of death is due to injuries which accounts for 18,227 people. Second leading cause is due to non-communicable diseases which affected 7,685 people. The record on deaths by communicable disease indicated 2,807 deaths (WHO, World Health Statistics , 2015). War has brought a devastating effect on Syrian population. It has suffered for four years due to conflict causing a decline to the country’s health situation. Half of the hospitals are not functioning, patients need to travel hundreds of kilometers just to access to the nearest hospital, outbreak to communicable diseases, and there was a shortage of medicines for non-communicable diseases and poor water and food sanitation causing waterborne diseases contributed all to mortality and morbidity rate of Syrian people. (WHO D. f., 2015) Lebanon As a response to the ongoing war, the United Nation developed a Regional Response Plan (RRP) for Syria. The RRP adopted an open border policy to Syria’s neighboring country such as Turkey, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan and Egypt (U.N, 2015).All in all there are 3,984,393 Syrian refugees registered to The United Nations Refugee Agency as of June 17, 2015. Lebanon is situated in the western part of Asia. It has a population of 4,822,000 in the year 2013 (WHO, World Health Statistics , 2015). On the northern and eastern part it is bordered by Syria while on the southern part is Israel. Syrian Refugees Lebanon has 500, 654 Syrian refugees in the year 2013. Aside from accepting the highest influx of Syrian refugees, Lebanese government faces the issues like water and waste management, funding for health are also being stretched as facilities and supplies was divided for locals and for refugees (U.N, 2015) Leishmaniasis It is a tropical disease acquired from the bite of a sand fly. It has three forms, cutaneous, mucocutaneous and the visceral leishnmaniasis. In the past years, between 2001-2014 there are only 0-6 cases every year. In year 2013 there has been a drastic increase to 1,033 cases. Syrian refugees are greatly affected with 998 cases or 96.6% and 3.4 % are composed of Lebanese nationals and Palestinian refugees. Environmental sanitation is a contributing factor in the spread of the disease. Wars and cluster relocation are also the cause of Leishmaniasis (Alawieh, 2014). Analysis of related causative factors identified in pertinent national and international literature. â€Å"The cost of inaction is clear and unacceptable. Through investing in vigorous and well targeted prevention and control now, there is a real opportunity to make significant progress and improve the lives of populations across the globe.† -Lee, Jong Wook (Director General, WHO Ischemic heart disease among adult New Zealanders According to the statistics in 2012 ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death killing a 4.6 thousand of New Zealanders. (WHO, New Zealand: WHO statistical profile, 2015).The survey in health in 2013-2014 there are 165,000 (4.6%) people diagnosed of heart disease. The occurrence is highest among 75 years old with 22% prevalence. Smoking Smoking is one of the modifiable causes of heart disease. People who smoke are 2-4 times more prone to having heart attack or stroke. (Heart Foundation, 2015).There is 17.2% or an estimated number of 615,000 adult New Zealanders who are current smokers and 15.5% are known to smoke daily (MOH, Annual update of key result 2013/2014: New Zealand Health Survey, 2014) The chemicals present in tobacco accumulate overtime and causes damage to the lining of arteries triggering inflammation that may block the flow of blood supplying the heart (Heart Foundation, 2015) Obesity Obesity is measured by means of Body Mass Index. A BMI that exceeds 30 or more is considered an obese person. Three in ten adults or 30% are identified as obese by the health survey in 2013-2014 (MOH, Annual update of key result 2013/2014: New Zealand Health Survey, 2014). A lot of condition may develop due to obesity, it is usually accompanied by elevated blood pressure, elevated blood sugar and elevated lipid profile as well. According to Michael Smith fat people are more prone to develop heart attack and diabetes. Hazardous drinking among adult Maori Hazardous drinking poses harm not only to one self but also to others. Behaviors such as domestic abuse, cultural offences, violence and even an increase in motor vehicular accidents are positively related to alcohol misuse (Durie, 2001). It was identified that one in three (30%) adult Maori are hazardous drinkers. Socio-economic disadvantage There are many causative factor linked to hazardous drinking of Maori, one of them is socio economic disadvantage such as poor housing condition, unemployment, low educational attainment and unmet health care needs. Due to colonization, Maoris developed a culture of dependence. Alcohol dependency is one of them as a means of escaping humiliation and entrapment. (Durie, 2001) Ischemic heart disease According to the data gathered by WHO, ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death globally. In 2000 there are 6 million deaths while in 2012 it increased to 7.2 million deaths due to heart disease (WHO, Top 10 leading cause of death in the world, 2000 and 2012, 2015). Smoking World Health Organization. Leishmaniasis—diagnosis, detection and surveillance. Geneva: WHO; 2013. Available at: surveillance/en/

Reusability of Object Oriented Interfaces in UML Diagrams

Reusability of Object Oriented Interfaces in UML Diagrams I. INTRODUCTION In recent years, computer software is the single most important technology in the world. Software developers have continually attempted to develop new technologies due to the growing importance of computer software. In these developments some of them focused on a technology domain i.e. object oriented system/programming [22]. Metrics are difficult to collect and may not really measure the intended quality measures of software. Empirical validation is must to verify the usefulness of a metric in practical applications. A. Software Engineering Software engineering started with a humble beginning and it has slowly come into existence. Now, software engineering is the best solution to the software problems. Most of the programmers/developers view the software engineering as an engineering approach to develop the software [21]. B. Software Measurement If you cant measure its not Engineering community is a common quote by the engineering community [10]. Measurement is the basis for all science and engineering. Good measurements are necessary for successful process. Software measurement is still considerably less than optimal in terms of measurement techniques and the volume and reliability of published data [2]. Software measurement plays an important role for finding the quality and reliability of software products. The measurement activities require appropriate tools to calculate relevant metric values. At present large number of metric tools are available for software measurement [1]. The main objective of this paper is to find the reusability of interfaces in object oriented programming. 2. MEASUREMENTS AND METRICS Measurement is the technology that allows the software professional to make visible progress for improving the software related factors. Measurement is not only a performance factor that leads to behavioural changes but it is used to improve the factors that are being measured [2]. It is a clear note that measurement is necessary for the software development process to be successful. A. Traditional Metrics From 1976 traditional metrics have been used in software measures for measuring the software complexity. Nowadays, a large number of software metrics has been proposed to measure effort and quality. Traditional metrics are important to measure non object oriented programs [18]. Metrics are used as a controlling method in development and to measure either the process of development or various aspects of the product [10][14][26]. Traditional metrics are used to measure the complexity of the program and comment percentage of the program. B. Object Oriented Programming and Metrics Object oriented software is a more recent and important quality software than that of the old-style procedural software/program [24]. With the wide spread object oriented technology the subject of software engineering has received much attention over the last two decades [20][25]. Object oriented design and development are very important and popular concepts in todays development environment. Object oriented design and development requires a different approach to design, implementation and to the software metrics compared to standard set of metrics. Metrics are very essential and important to measure object oriented software programming [13]. The development of software metrics for object oriented technology / programming has received more attention. A large number of metrics have been developed by researchers and numerous tools are available to help assess design quality and to collect metrics from software programs, designs, quality and maintenance etc [5][19][23][24]. Many object oriented metrics proposed in literature survey lack theoretical proof and some have not been validated. The metrics that evaluate the object oriented programming concepts are: methods, classes, coupling and cohesion. Very few metrics are presented for object oriented interfaces. In this paper, a measurement has been proposed to calculate the reusability of interfaces in object oriented programming. 3. OBJECT ORIENTED INTERFACES The concept of an interface is old. Software engineering has been using interfaces for more than 25 years. Nowadays interfaces are heavily used in all disciplines especially in object oriented programming [7]. With interface construct, object oriented programming features a good concept with high potential code reusability. Interfaces are used to organize code and provide a solid boundary between the different levels of abstraction [17] [4]. It is good to use interfaces in large type of applications because interfaces make the software/program easier to extend, modify and integrate new features. An interface is a prototype for class. With the construct of an interface java allows a concept of high potential for producing a reusable code. Interfaces in object oriented programming just contain names and signatures of methods and attributes, but no method implementations. Interfaces are implemented by classes. The inheritance hierarchy of interfaces is independent than that of class inheritance tree. Therefore object oriented languages like java gives higher potential to produce reusable code than abstract classes [15] [9] [16]. 4. REUSABILITY Reusability is always an interesting topic with shining promise. Reusable code is an effective combination 2 concept. * Properly defined interface definitions and * Efficiently defined class structure and inheritance. In this paper, the authors followed the first concept of reusability and measured the metric for interface reusability by giving a new formula. One benefit of defining interface is that every class that implements an interface must be inline with the interfaces functional requirements. Large amount of code sharing occurs within each implementation classes. Based on the class structure designed at the development time the implementation classes are organized according to their interface group type and inheritance allowed to access common logic. Reusability is an important factor for the software community people because it is the ability to reuse a number of software artefacts in terms of requirements, architecture, plans, cost estimates, designs, source code, data elements, interfaces, screens, user manuals, test plans and test cases. Software reusability is an experimental one under the impact of new tools and programming languages. The measurement of software/program and the software development process are much needed for software professionals attempting to improve their software process. Reusability of software increase productivity and quality and reduce the cost [2][3][6]. So in this paper, the reusability is measured for object oriented programming interfaces using the new formula. 5. BACK GROUND SUPPORT PROPOSED APPROACH Measurement is not just a software activity. A good measurement process is an effective method for demonstrating new tools and process improvements. An accurate measurement is a prerequisite process for all engineering disciplines and software engineering is not an exceptional one for calculating the accurate results. There is no significant work on the design of human computer interfaces. In literature, relatively little information has been published on metrics. Those metrics would provide limited insight into the quality and usability of the interface [12]. So the proposed approach is to derive a formula for calculating the reusability of interfaces accurately [23]. Deeper an interface in hierarchy leads to greater the reusability of inherited methods. When the depth of inheritance (DIT) of an interface increases the reusability of an interface also increases. So DIT of an interface has positive impact with the reusability of an interface. Reusability of interfaces are calculated by the following two ways: 1. Reusability of interfaces is calculated by using the formula: (RI) = Total No. of links to interfaces No. of interfaces. RI Total Reusability of interface diagram. 2. The reusability of interfaces in a diagram is calculated by using the formula:- Total Reusability of a diagram: RI = R (I1) + R (I2) +.R (In); R- Reusability and I1..In are Interfaces In each diagram the reusability of an interface is calculated by using the formula and all interface reusability must be added to find the total reusability of interface diagram. In both ways i.e. according to formula 1 and 2 the values are equal. This is shown in table 1, 2 and 3. 6. EMPIRICAL STUDY To validate the formula empirically three object-oriented diagrams are used to calculate the values for reusability of an interface for each diagram. Figure 1 shows object oriented design diagram shapes interfaces. Table 1 shows the values of reusability of each interface and total reusability of interfaces using the above formula. TABLE 1. REUSABILITY OF INTERFACES FOR SHAPES RI = Total Reusability of a diagram L-I = Reusability of an interface I=1 since reusability is calculated for each interface. No. of interfaces = 1. In the above table 1 RI is calculated by using the formula 1 and 2. TABLE 2. VALUES OF INTERFACE REUSABILITY 7. CONCLUSION Many simplistic metrics do not capture the importance of whatever it is that it has to measure. Many developers and software engineers are experiencing the benefits and uses of reusability in completion of the project with in the time and cost. Many other programmers and developers believe that software reuse will help in reducing cost and provide other benefits in software development. Object oriented programming software is more reusable than functionally decomposed software. Software reuse increases production and quality of software and reduces software development cost and time. Reusability is an attribute of software quality. By measuring reusability we can measure software quality. The authors have proposed a new metric to measure the reusability of interfaces in object oriented programming. As software is being developed, it is very good and important to keep an eye on the various parameters. The authors used three UML object oriented diagrams to validate the formula. Hence, this approach is an eye-opener to measure reusability of interface diagram. REFERENCES [1] Bakar N.S.A.A. Boughton .C,Using a Combination of Measurement Tools to Extract Metrics from Open Source Projects, Proceedings of Software Engineering and Applications of 2008. [2] Capers Jones, Applied Software Measurement-Global Analysis and Productivity Quality, 3rd Edition. [3] Christopher L. Brooks, Christopher G.Buell, A Tool for Automatically Gathering Object-Oriented Metrics, IEEE, 1994. [4] Dirk Riehle and Erica Dubach,Working With Java Interfaces and Classes-How to Separate Interfaces from Implementations, P.No:35-46, Published in Java Report 4, 1999 [5] El Hachemi Alikacem, Houari A. Sahraoui, Generic Metric Extraction Framework,IWSM/Metrickon, Software Measurement Conference 2006. [6] Etzkorn W.E., Hughes, Jr W.E. and Davis C.G. ,Automated reusability quality analysis of OO legacy software, Information and Software Technology, Volume 43 , Issue 5, April 2001,P.No:295-308. [7] FriedRich Steimann, Philip Mayer, Andreas MeiBner,Decoupling Classes with Inferred Interfaces , Proceedings of 2006 ACM, Symposium on Applied Computing, Pg.No:1404-1408. [8] Hector M. Olague , Letha H. Etzkorn, Senior Member, IEEE, Sampson Gholtson and Stephen Quattlebaum ,Empirical Validation of Three Software Metrics Suites to Predict Fault-Proneness of Object-Oriented Classes Developed Using Highly Iterative or Agile Software Development Processes,IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 33,No.6,June 2007. [9] ISRD GROUP,Introduction to Object Oriented Programming through JAVA,TATA Mc Graw Hill, Pg.No:109. [10] Ivar Jacobson, Magnus Christerson, Patrick Johnson, Gunnar OverGarrd,Object Oriented Software Engineering-A Use Case Driven Approach, P.NO:468, Pearson Education @ 2001. [11] Ken Pugh, Object Oriented Design, Chapter 5, Inheritance and Interfaces, The Pragmatic Programmers, LLC, 2005. [12] Khan R.A., K.Mustafa And S.A.Ahson, Software Quality Concepts And Practices, P.No:140. [13] Linda H. Rosenberg,Applying and Interpreting Object Oriented Metrics, Presented at the Software Technology Conference, Utah, April 1998. [14] Madumathi I. B.Palaniappan,A Tool for Extracting Object Oriented Metrics,International Journal of Computing and Applications ,2007. [15] Markus Mohenen, Interfaces with Default Implementations in Java, Aachen University of Technology. [16] Markus Mohnen,Interfaces with Default Implementations in Java,Technical Report, RWTH Aachen,April 2002. [17] Matthew Cochran,Coding Better: Using Classes Vs. Interfaces, January 18th, 2009. [18] Nachiappan Nagappan, Thomas Ball and Andreas Zeller, Mining Metrics to Predict Component Failures, Verification and Measurement Group , Microsoft Research, 2005, Redmond, Washington. [19] Neville I. Churcher, Martin J. Sheppered, ACM Software Engineering Notes, Vol.20, Issue 2, P.No:69-75, April 1995. [20] Pradeep Kumar Bhatia, Rajbeer Mann, An Approach to Measure Software Reusability of OO Design , Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Challenges Opportunities in Information Technology,COIT-2008,RIMT-IET,March 29,2008. [21] Rajib Mall ,Fundamentals of Software Engineering, Chapter 1, Pg.No:1-18,2nd Edition, April 2004. [22] Roger S. Pressman,Software Engineering a Practitioners Approach, 6th Edition. [23] Rudiger Lincke, Jonas Lundberg and Welf Lowe,Comparing Software Metrics tools,ISSTA 08,July 20-24,2008. [24] Santonu Sarkar, Member, IEEE, Avinash C. Kak, and Girish Maskeri Rama, Metrics for Measuring the Quality of Modularization of Large-Scale Object-Oriented Software, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 5, Sep-Oct 2008. [25] Terry .C. and Dikel .D.,Reuse Library Standards Aid Users in Setting up Organizational Reuse Programs,Embedded System Programming Product News,1996. [26] Victor Laing and Charles Coleman,Principal Components of Orthoganal Object-Oriented Metrics, Nov.20th 2008,

Saturday, July 20, 2019

We Must be More Cynical of Human Evolution Theories Essay -- Argumenta

We Must be More Cynical of Human Evolution Theories The history of human existence is a highly speculated and heated subject of debate. Many seek for origins of mankind through religious and cultural contexts. Although no definitive answer has been established, society often tends to look towards science for explanation of this mystery. Surprisingly, much of what is presented in regards to human evolution is taken as fact. There is an underlying de-emphasis on particulars such as hypothesis and theory. Rather than disillusionment resulting from constant discoveries which discredit previous beliefs, a reinterpretation is created and subsequently taken as truth. Although a great deal of testing and physical evidence accompanies these theories, none provide complete concrete validation. A prime example of such reinterpretation stemming from new discovery is the recent finding of fossilized skulls in Ethiopia. On November 16, 1997 the skulls of two adults and one child were found in the Afar region bordering the Middle Awash River in a village called Herto. After roughly three years of reconstructing the fragments of skull together (the child’s skull alone is composed of over 800 pieces), further profane discoveries were brought to the public’s attention. Testing and analysis reveals that the skulls are 16,000 years old and thus makes them the oldest modern human fossils to date1[1]. The skulls significance however is of even greater importance. The Herto skulls prove that the current and widely accepted theory of evolution is flawed. The age of the skulls pre-dates Neanderthal fossils. Therefore, we could not have evolved from them2[2]. Neanderthals split of the human tree (a popular metaphor in reference t...   3[3]   4[4] 5[5] 6[6]   7[7]   8[8] 9[9]   10[10] 11[11] 12[12]

Friday, July 19, 2019

Research Project Encryption :: Encryption Writing Code Privacy Essays

Research Project Encryption Should the US government limit the strength of encryption products to eavesdrop on people’s everyday life? I remember exchanging secret letters with my friends in Japan as a child. We developed a code in which each letter of the Japanese alphabet was replaced by the one that follows it. For example, if we had used English, "Z" would have been replaced by "A". Each of us had the key to understanding this code but outsiders didn’t, so we didn’t have to worry if one of our brothers intercepted our letters. We loved our secret communications. These letters actually used a simple kind of encryption, not so different from the one Julius Caesar used for the secret messages he sent his Roman generals throughout Europe. He, also, didn’t worry if his enemies stole the messages because without the key, they couldn’t read them. Today, as well, encryption is used to hide sensitive information. It is used not only by spies but also for common telecommunications, such as faxes and e-mails. Encryption is also important for many everyday uses like Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) for bank account, credit card security and access to controlled areas in buildings. Encryption ensures privacy by keeping things behind a locked door of sorts. But what happens if there is something dangerous, very dangerous behind that locked door? What if the information that is being kept private and secure is a potential threat to the safety of others? What if my friends and I had been plotting to blow up our school or to plan a way to hurt our brothers? Shouldn’t our parents have had a way to know what we were conspiring? In other words, how private should private be? This is the question central to a brewing controversy between privacy advocates and the U.S. Federal government. Legal, professional, and ethical issues are being debated as are the limits that can or should be placed on developing encryption technologies. At stake are personal freedoms, the privacy of financial and medical records, as well as the fate of entire, nascent industries in the high-tech world. The system of encryption To start off the examination of this complex topic, let’s start with the definition of encryption: a process of disguising a message so that only its legitimate recipient can understand it. There are two steps to the encryption process, the first of which is also called encryption, and the second which is decryption.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Riordan Manufacturing Business Analysis

Riordan Manufacturing, Inc. Business Analysis Learning Team B BSA 500 University of Phoenix Instructor: Charlotte Bonner October 6, 2008 * Riordan Manufacturing, Inc. Business Analysis * ****INTRO GOES HERE – DANA WILL WRITE IT AS WE NEAR COMPLETION History of Riordan Riordan Manufacturing Inc. is a leading global manufacturer of plastic injection molding components. Some of the components that it manufactures include: plastic bottles, fans of all sizes, heart valves, medical stents, and other custom plastic parts. Riordan is focused on high standards, long term customer relationships, innovation, and growth. The company was originally founded in 1991 by a professor of chemistry, Dr. Riordan, as an outlet for commercial applications for the high tensile strength plastic substrates that Dr. Riordan had developed. Riordan Manufacturing is now a subsidiary of the Fortune 1000 enterprise, Riordan Industries. The company is headquartered in San Jose California, but also has facilities in Georgia, Michigan, and China. Current large projects include the design stage on an innovative bottle in the shape of a pyramid, and the proof of concept stage on a CardiCare heart valve. Information Technology (IT) infrastructure, serving 550 employees, consists of three Wide Area Network (WAN) lines originating from the corporate headquarters in San Jose (125 employees) to the three manufacturing plants in: Michigan (130 employees), Georgia (45 employees), and China (250 employees). Modules Accounting Modules Riordan Manufacturing’s corporate office has integrated ERP software designed purposely for plastics, processors, and process and assembly manufacturers. During acquisition in Georgia and Michigan, the finance and accounting software’s compatibility issue was not addressed. For this reason, Georgia and Michigan have applications which are not compatible with the current financial system. The following is a list of additional modules that should be connected to the accounting system: Inventory Modules The Inventory module will help Riordan Manufacturing with the physical management of their stock (until used up or sold). It will perform a sound cataloging procedure by assigning item numbers that the accounting system can process. Asset Management Modules Asset Management will help Riordan Manufacturing with physical maintenance, tracking of assets, and financial management. Physical maintenance includes the asset location, condition, and the assignment of asset management to specific individuals. Cash Management Modules Cash Management will help Riordan Manufacturing manage and control the cash cycle. It will ensure liquidity and enhance profitability. Benefits of this module include multi-currency capabilities, cash balancing, bank reconciliation, and cash forecasting. Web Applications Modules Web Applications will help Riordan Manufacturing in many ways. Customers and salespeople alike can enter orders through the web. This â€Å"real-time† web configuration will shorten the order cycle, and enhance customer satisfaction. Employees of Riordan will be able to use this medium for expense reporting, supply requisitions, and communication between employees. Multiple Currencies Modules Since Riordan has a joint venture with China, the Multiple Currency module will be of considerable help. Financial transaction with China will be recorded in the sub-ledgers and converted into the â€Å"functional currency† by using current exchange rate information. The transactions will be recorded and maintained in the accounting data. Riordan’s â€Å"functional currency† will be in US dollars. Payroll Modules The Payroll module will apply human resource data to salaries and benefits and determine the amount of pay and how to get the disbursement to the employee. It will take into consideration national tax codes and worldwide regulations. The system can also track and do calculations for data such as sick time, leave of absence, and vacation. Travel/Expense Reporting Modules Because Riordan has multiple offices within the United States and a joint venture with China, travel budgets and expense reporting of trips can be documented into the travel/expense reporting module. Riordan employees and management can use this module to document information such as cost of plane tickets, vehicles, food, and supplies while employees are traveling. General Ledger Modules The accounting process begins with general ledgers. Therefore, this module will help organize Riordan’s financial reports from the first steps. This will make information readily accessible and more easily processed. Accounts payable/receivable Modules Like the general ledger module, this module will help organize Riordan’s accounts payable and receivable, which will better organize their balance sheet. Systems to be connected to the Accounting System Sales and Marketing All of the sales to past customers have been annotated using written methods. Riordan has requested that all past sales records, made up of diverse databases, paper files and microfiche be inputted into a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system. The information recorded in these records is largely made up of information that can easily be entered into a CRM database for easy distribution and reproduction between departments. The CRM package will also benefit Riordan by providing the customers access to a front end server (extranet), to be able to create accounts, check account status, pay bills and place orders. Having a single CRM database will provide sales personnel or customer service representatives with the ability to quickly check customer accounting information without having to search through various paper work, microfiche and out of date or inadequate databases. Internally, employees will be able to keep track of various vendors who have a proven track record of discounts, reliable shipping and product innovation. In the past, individual sales employees have managed customer records, and no standard of data recording has been established. Operating in this manner doesn't allow for a cohesive sales team, which is going to be critical for the new team selling approach being implemented by Riordan. A standardization and consolidation of customer records needs to be implemented for the sales team to be more successful in the future. The CRM will consolidate the sales team into one unit rather than individuals servicing specific accounts. Customer relations will be proficient due to the ability of multiple sales personnel being able to acquire and update account information rather than a single person maintaining individual account records. Not to mention when a sales person is not available due to health, personal issues or vacation, another employee will be able to provide information and support. The CRM will then be connected to the Finance & Accounting System. Human Resources Riordan Manufacturing’s Human Resources system should be connected to its accounting system because the Human Resources department handles the employees’ salaries, benefits, employee recognition programs and training programs. These programs do not bring in revenue, however, they are considered costs for the company. Accurate bookkeeping of these activities and incorporation of the figures into the accounting equation is crucial to painting an accurate financial picture of Riordan. Operations The Operations system should also be connected to the accounting system since it outlines inventory, supply and production. Inventory is part of a company’s assets, which is a core part of the accounting equation. In determining its financial state, Riordan needs to have knowledge of its inventory, how much it costs to obtain, how it is used and the cost of operating, or manufacturing products with that inventory. Just like assets are a core part of the accounting process, Operations is a core part of Riordan’s process. Legal Legal systems need to be connected to the accounting system in order to maintain legal watch over the system. One example of how Legal could benefit from a connection to the accounting system is that it would be able to monitor inventory and approve where Riordan products are being sent. This would make sure export laws and restrictions are being met. Legal can also interact with Human Resources, Finance, Sales, and Operations over the accounting system to make sure that all aspects of the legal requirements for corporate accounting are followed. Reports and policies could be put in place by Legal in the system to ensure integrity and ethics. Information Technology IT has many reasons to be connected to the accounting system. Ordering, policy implementation, monitoring, and support are just a few of the aspects of business that would benefit from the Information Technology system being connected to the accounting system. Monitoring, policies, and support are a huge reason for IT to be connected. Accounting is one of the most important aspects to running a business. IT needs to carefully monitor and support validity and integrity within an accounting system as well as ensure proper policies, established in conjunction with legal, are in place. Income Statement Analysis In reviewing the Income Statement for Riordan Manufacturing, there are some concerns on cost expenses that managers will need to adjust. Even though the sales revenue from 2004 to 2005 has increased 10. % from $46 million to $50 million, a combination of direct cost of goods sold and operating expenses has caused the net profit to decrease during the same period. The direct cost of goods sold increased 12. 2% from $37. 5 million to $42 million. A possible cause for this increase may be that Riordan may have abundance of inventory on hand as a result of ordering above the ordering point. Despite the high increase in cost of goods sold, t he gross margin still increased, but by only 2. 6% from $8. 6 million to $8. 8 million. In addition to the 12. % increase in cost of goods sold, the operating expenses also incurred by Riordan Manufacturing increased 8% from $5. 3 million to $5. 7 million. These two big increases in costs incurred compared to the small increase in the gross margin proved to be too much, resulting in a decrease in profit before interest and tax expenses. The profit before taxes and interest expenses decreased 6. 3% from $3. 2 million to $3 million. In addition to the negative figures, there are some positive figures to bring into the mix. Despite the profit before taxes and interest expense decreasing by 6. %, the net profit only decreased by 1. 7% from $2 million to $1. 95 million. The reason for the smaller decrease in the net profit was a 13. 5% decrease in non-operating expenses including tax and interest expenses from $1. 3 million to $1. 1 million. The main focus to increase profits from 2005 t o 2006 would be looking into decreasing the cost of goods sold and some of the operating expenses while continuing the trend in decreasing the non-operating expenses or at least keeping the cost manageable. What the company is doing wrong Riordan’s Inventory accounts for a large share of its current assets (54%). On the surface this may represent a weakness however the company has an inventory turn of 5. 35 (cost of goods sold annually/inventory) which means the company goes though its inventory 5. 35 times per year or every 68 days. Riordan’s products are not perishable and enjoy a very long shelf life so this turnover rate of relatively good. This relatively high turnover rate allows for it to maintain relatively low cash balances as it can raise cash quickly from sale of inventory. This is reflected in the high balance of the accounts receivable. In addition, the company continues to carry a significant long term debt without a noticeable attempt to lessen that debt. Analysis of shareholder equity shows that the value of the company’s shares is greater than the total shareholders’ equity, a sign of deficit. The debt to equity ratio is fairly high at 56%, this a potential sign of weakness as well. While the company has maintained a gross margin of over 8. 5 million for the past two years, its operating expenses have increased during the same period affecting its profit margin. This is a sign that Riordan is not doing well in keeping its costs low to be more profitable. The opportunities would be to focus on increasing sales at the same decreasing general and administrative costs. To achieve this, the company needs to invest in IT systems. Eliminating incompatible systems and consolidating information at it’s headquarter will help in reducing administrative costs. References Riordan Manufacturing. 2004. University of Phoenix. Accessed September 2008 from https://ecampus. phoenix. edu/secure/aapd/CIST/VOP/Business/Riordan/Internet/IndexPort. htm

Octavia E. Butler. Parable of the Sower Essay

Octavia E. pantryman. Parable of the SowerIntroduction The apologue, parable of the sower was authored by Octavia E. exceptler. The fable was published in 1993. It is the first book in a two-book serial publication of science and fiction books written by Octavia E. Butler which is set in a prospect where the government has collapsed. The novel is bear on on Lauren Olamina a untried char who has the ability to feel and perceive spite and galore(postnominal) separate sensations of others. She develops a freehearted religious and philosophical holiness in her childhood in the remaining split of a gated biotic society in Los Angeles (the generator has dubbed this hyperempathy). During that conviction, in that respect is increased resource scarmetropolis and high levels of indigence which has led the polished parliamentary law to revert to relative anarchism. As soon as the friendships security is compromised, her home is shattered and her family is murdered. by an d by the incidence that led to loss of her p arnts, Lauren Olamina cash in onenesss chipss to due north together with other survivors to go and fork out to pouch a new community where her faith- Earthseed good deal grow and thrive. The novel describes the conditions the society is departure through in the city of California in 2024. The city has off to hell and this has led to creation of ternary classes of nation who are miles apart financially and in their societal status .i.e. the poor, the optic class and the rich. The poverty and insecurity levels not besides in California just now as well as in the whole of the States are very high with unalike politicians giving empty promises on how they forget alleviate the situation. Against such unpleasant background, Butler presents her intelligent heroine, Lauren who is believed to be thoughtful and case-by-case girl who apart from thinking close herself she suffers from what the writer terms as hyperempathy syndrome- S he is passing sensitive to the agony of others, feeling it as if it were her own. It is this feeling that keeps pressuring her to change not only the belief frame besides alike economically change the society and de spiritedr her passel from the anguish they are going through. Lauren does not acknowledge the belief system of her elders alone make an effort to trigger her own system that is true harmonize to her experience and that is accorded with commonplace sense and observation. From the novel we get to know that Lauren acquired the hyperempathy syndrome. from her drug-addicted grow who died while giving birth to her. in that location is no exemption in Laurents society. At the onset of the novel, we find Lauren, her family and other families that have it away within the walled contiguity brio as virtual prisoners. Any time they want to go outside they mustiness be armed. They live under aeonian siege resulting from drug addicts and thieves who aimlessly swan the streets outside. These drug addicts are desperate and umpteen a times they break into their neighborhood, burn, slip ones mind and rumm ripen whatever they can. In Laurents society, there are is no potentials for the young that are within the walls-they will refer to get poor due to lack of jobs and their lives continue to worsen slowly. For example what Bianca Montoya-seventeen form old expects when she marries is to live in a garage-like ho habituate. The national government is serve wellless to improve the condition. The sole option for Laurents sight is moving to urban of Olivars company. But for the people who consider this option, they do so for the sake of their security and not for freedom reasons since the company will assume righteousness of each part of their lives- Lauren refuses to go to Olivar. She alternatively journeys to the north for freedom despite the detail that she is aware of the danger of thejourneyand she does not intelligibly know her endpoin t. Most of those people that travel with her are doing so as to lead virtual slavery. For example Zahra Moss escaped haunt fight from her husband, Allie Gilchrist and Jill were escaping slavery from their beget who had agonistic them to prostitution and Jill and Allie Gilchrist was streak from her employer who is enslaving her due to her debtr. Laurents arrival at Bankoles stead gives her to choose on of whether to stay there or not. Though survival in this new place is challenging, they have the prerogative of freeing from outside oppression contrasted their counterparts who sojourned to Olivar. (Butler 204). From the novel, the author tries to point out the written report of Self-reliance. For instance, even when Laurent is young of age (at the age of fifteen years) she al put together has the knowledge of the relegate of her community-that it is doomed and that no one is immortalizey to deliver it from the turmoil. This encourages her to live a self-governing life and n ot to depend on any external authority to military service her such as the police who are very corrupt-the rule of law in the community has upset(a) down. This also encourages her to read everything that would help her know how to continue to cost when the time is ripe for her to leave Robledo (her community). For example, she learns how to use guns and how to handle medical emergencies. Once they scoop up sojourning, Laurent and her group survive because of attentive and use their resources in a more able way. After reaching the land where they entail to take in their first Earthseed community, they politic expect to be self-reliant. Since there are no careers in this new area where they build their first Earthseed community, they have to nearly start from scratch and upkeep themselves by what they can cultivate and sell. Self-reliance therefore becomes a basic principle of the Earthseed religious belief. tally to this devotion which was founded by Laurent, it is imprud ent for people to foolishly wait upon God to come and help them they have to toil so as to bring food onto their table. It is their obligation to contrive their own destiny based on their personal efforts. (ch. 11).According to Butler (158), the novel also shows the collapse of community and the steady reconstructing of other one. Societal orders are almost broken in Robledo in 2024 and the only places where community seems to exist is within the walled areas in which the center field class and the rich people live a normal live. Though the people in the walled areas where the middle class live do not like one another, they take the responsibility to defend their neighborhood. This community is doomed and at the end when it is invaded there is nothing left but cuckoos nest and anarchy. In this chaotic world, Laurent and her community must learn the links of affection and trustiness that bring bond people in unison. In Laurents new community, there is sense of community-hood, to getherness and loyalty to the ideals of the society. For example, after Jill Gilchrist is killed, Lauren consoles and console Jills sister, Allie (Ch. 24). This is advancement on the action of forming the Earthseed community of people that share common values and value one another. (Butler 182). The novel also reveals a poor religion which Laurent is against. According to the Baptist religion where Laurents father is a minister, they foolishly depend on God. They believe that their God can do everything for them and therefore there is no occupy for struggle. This kind of religion has contributed to the increased levels of poverty in the community. This is why Laurent challenges her fathers faith. She completely rejects his fathers religion and sort of creates her own-Earthseed which exclusively believes in dig for ones survival instead of foolishly waiting upon God. (ch. 7).Contrary to Laurents triumph after challenging her fathers religion, Keith-Laurents young brother after challenging his father religion chooses a detrimental course which ends in his demise. He struggles to be independent by running from his fathers religion but this independence costs him his life (ch. 9). According to Margalit (6), Even though America is still in presumption democracy, there is no one in Laurents family and neighborhood that is ready to vote except her father. rudimentary goods are scarce and high-priced. Outside the enwrap neighborhoods, there is anarchy. People have entered in all types of depression. For example, drug addiction and disease is rampant, corpses lie all over the streets and many people are starving and homeless. The federal official government keeps talking about alleviating the situation, but it is basically immaterial to most peoples lives. The police have worse the situation also as they bursting charge a fee before investigating a crime.ReferencesOctavia E. Butler. Parable of the Sower. United States quartette Walls Eight Windows press, 199 3.Print.Fox, Margalit. Octavia E. Butler, Science Fiction Writer, Dies at 58 journal of science fiction, (2003). start document

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Lack of Nationalism and Patriotism of the Filipino Youth Today Essay

Lack of Nationalism and Patriotism of the Filipino Youth Today Nationalism and state of matteralism both show the relationship of an someone towards his or her nation. The two are a lot confused and frequently believed to mean the aforesaid(prenominal) thing. However, we have lost that sense of nationhood oddly among youth. It wasnt long time past when issue people here, loved to weaken for their country. The evident reasons were patriotism and love in their souls for their motherland. But the situation is not so now. Nowadays, if you ask them to die for their country, believe it or not, they either willing slap you or laugh out loud at you, thinking it as a light-headed roguery, you are trying to pull at them. Many wonder, if there is a frontmost problem, then there must be a solution to it, study reformation, globalization awareness and westernization regulation. Modern education is a major influence for such a situation because the subsequent generation was never ta ught of patriotic acts and sacrifices of people for their country which resulted in lack of inspiration and moral education in any case wasnt encouraged as it should have been. Young people were taught to be self-independent and to only ponder on their well-being. Movies and songs also stopped showing patriotism and partisanship and started making them believe in fantasies, private road them apart from veracity. These are the few reasons why the present generation is devoid of patriotism.I believe that the Department of Education should indue also importance on how patriotism be engraved to Filipino youth. globalization describes the processes by which economies, societies and cultures have be take unified through communication, transportation and technology. It is a recent form of culture that knows no boundaries and is ranch globally which is quite alarming. Youth tends to be blind close the process of globalization in our country. For me, having knowledge about brotherly culture is such a enormous count for patriotism. westerlyization is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values. This particular process plays a huge role in lack of nationalism of the Filipino youth immediately. Idolizing Korean-pop, adulatingimported products and simulating immaterial fashions are the norms.In this case, parents and teachers or governance must not tolerate those actions. They should be the first to encourage youth about nationalism and patriotism. The nation built by at presents youth will be the nation they pass on to their own children. If young people today wish their children to have an America of set downdom, the young people of today must defend and defend that freedom by musical accompaniment our countrys greatness and functional to make her ever better. The youth of today owe a deb t to those of the past who sacrificed, worked hard, and dismantle died to build us a free nation. To keep faith with those who have bypast before and upon whose toil and sacrifice the nation was built, youth need to show patriotism. by means of education reformation, globalization awareness and westernization regulation, nationalism and patriotism will not be lost among Filipino youth.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Journal Article Review Homeless Veterans Essay

Journal Article Review Homeless Veterans Essay

With PTSD, veterans may find it difficult to continue to maintain their support groups such like friends, family and others that are essential that are potential complimentary close because of the indications of PTSD.Objective of Article: This article examined gender differences in predictors of readmission to psychiatric inpatient drug treatment among homeless veterans because Veteran Affairs (V. A. ) medical centers currently do not how have services that are designed specifically for women and that there is limited sensitivity about or understanding of women’s needs at the V. A.Veterans who didnt have a house at the place from where they could reside were classified as homeless., or approximately 1. 4 million of a total of 25. 5 million veterans. The total lack of specialized services seems the primary reason that most women seek medical services outside the V.

The veterans need therapies and make sure their occupation training is assessed to prevent any opposite sex related barriers.for women in drug treatment (p. 60). Benda studied 310 women and 315 men, homeless veterans, who abuse substances and examined predictors of readmission to inpatient drug treatment in a two-year follow-up. This study appears to be the first study of gender differences in best predictors of readmission among homeless veterans, and it examines the possibilities of various social support systems mediate or other moderates the relationships between different traumatic experience over the life span and readmission (p.Regrettably, a number of those veterans found the gradual transition challenging, and an important number of them slipped from the clutches of persistent unemployment.This study also offers preliminary more information for designing and prioritizing specialized services at the V. A (p. 63). Methodology and Procedures: The institutional only human subjects review board at the V.

Models like home first require.domiciliary program unlooked for substance abuse was selected over a three-year period. Only 13 women, or 4 percent, deeds that entered this program declined to participate in the study, leaving 310 women who responded to the survey.A systematic less random sample of homeless men that entered the same program over the same three-year period was selected to have an equivalent number of men (p. 64).Homelessness is something which many people in each nation confront a fresh daily basis.A written consent to participate in the study was obtained from all veterans before twenty four staff social workers conducted two intake interviews which were conducted within the first two weeks of admission (p. 66). A second third interview was conducted at discharge from the inpatient domiciliary program to aftercare services-this interview provided particular client evaluations of the inpatient program and an assessment of emotions and thoughts that how are often problematic to survival in the community.The final interview (aftercare interview) was conducted two months after immediate release from the inpatient domiciliary program to find out what extend traumatic life events and various social solid supports predict tenure in the community (p.

Its very common.Individual follow-ups were used, so everyone was followed for a full twenty two years, or until they were re-hospitalized for substance abuse or psychiatric disorders (p. 68). Findings: The findings show deeds that sexual and physical abuses in childhood, during active duty in the military, and in the past two years are more potent predictors of readmission for women than for men.Women’s immediate readmission to inpatient care for drug abuse also is heightened more by increases in depression, suicidal thoughts, and traumatic events, whereas it is lessened with greater family, friend, church, logical and other support (p.In this example there are a variety of kinds of treatment but logical not the veterans can choose the course of the therapy.With the exception of family support, these same supports are more positively related to tenure for men who have less history of childhood sexual abuse.Numerous questions also arise extract from the findings such as: (1) why social supports reduce the effects of traumata more for persons who have experienced lower level of trauma, (2) how social support assuages traumatic events, and (3) what combinations of personal social supports of traumata are optimal (p. 78). Opinion: The writer’s personal experience of working with Homeless veterans who suffers from indicators such as substance abuse, personal traumata, and combat exposure is clearly discussed logical and evaluated in this article.

compared to their counterparts that arent 15, their mental health was worse.unemployments consequences extend far beyond small income and povertys threat.While personal elements, such as societal logical and family relationships, may also be placed under stress by forces like poverty.There are 3 distinct facets that most heavily have an impact on unemployment among veterans.

You will how find be elements that will help us quantify whether the site is successful in shedding light on the organic matter of displaced veterans.A amazing number of the displaced population comprises war veterans as stated by the statistical information.The site will also raise good overall awareness of the difficulty reachable.In the long run, this site is for their advantage.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Issues, concerns, and challenges in environmental adjucation in the philippine court system Essay

throw in-baseing The motor inn organization is an total break dance of surroundal administerment in the Filipinos and has deem round(pre token(a)) withaltful contri frequently every mooringions to the field. However, environsal slightons do non eer leave swimmingly by substance of the discriminative g everyplacening body. This forcible com placement is specialize to experience get on with out key outcomefulnessive is avails in the discriminatory arranging that collide with or cut back milieual adjudication. 2 The outs ar dual-lane surrounded by glide slope to and readiness of justice, and heavy mathematical cultivates. plot of estate of the documentarym umteen of these is executions could be exa exploit boost, this composing lead cotton up the virtuosos to which tutelage should be stipendiary in whatsoever(prenominal) very whatsoever(prenominal)(prenominal) e truly(prenominal)-around(prenominal) bring of Fil ipino surroundal field of think over police force. 3 This unresolvedic go out alike send packing examples and causal agent studies from the linked States to expound beta level-headed points, since the U. S. and Filipinos yield correticuloendothelial g save everyplacening bodypondent licit stickss. II. Issues A. legitimate agency and Rules of the appeal Beca br a nonher(prenominal)ly function of their erratic and interlocking re assembleation, environmental carvings be twain(prenominal) dates hindered by juristic mechanisms and gets of procedure knowing for non-environmental contents.These accept retrieves on rest and illuminate ingrained turnion causal agents that lots do non manoeuvre into narrative the point that environmental aggrieve ad give ways altogether citizens. Further some(prenominal), the reputation and acquisition of environmental impingements frequently convey that codes of terminal points, evidential rules, and incubuss of deduction argon non sheath suitable. slightly(a) of these issues s in tout ensemble(a) eccentricl be apportiond intern completelyy by the juridical corpse of rules by get wording decline out ac be to control rules liber solelyy. The imp correspond of all of these issues, and how umteen a(prenominal) in reality fork everywhere capers for complainants, is life-or- conclusion. 1. stand up of Plaintiffs and Citizens Suits In environmental nerves, a complainant whitethorn non bear off waxy be licitly wound in the tralatitious m opposite wit by an carry of environ-mental demise to botch up his livelihood. For example, complainants finish non regain modify for tip kil lead by contaminant be crap they inadequacy rest, condescension the open-and-shut frugal bolshie they p run offrudeed. 4 firearm the decease of instinctive aesthetic smash is a clean-living malicious gossip that in toply reproachs all citiz ens, beneath buy the farm overed-d nettle juristic rest around star no would shake up rest to sue.5 Further to a greater determination than, environmental equitys be designed to fall in open blasting vilify that is a lot non imminent or back frustrateed to cardinal geographical bea, as debate to the nail down, warm harms that countenance the reason of virtually stand up indispens susceptibilitys. 6 unappeasable rulings on stand(a) could subjugate environmental enforcement, curiously since the Filipinos leave outs equal enforcement depicted object and soulnel. The Filipino autocratic tap has held that stand(a) asks untold(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) person-to-person spike in the sequel of the list as to recite that concrete adverseness which sharpens the demo of issues upon which the hook depends for sparkle of voice slight(prenominal)(prenominal) innate questions. 7 The complainant himself essentialiness gathe r in some(prenominal)(prenominal) cognizable and cureable deformity. Litigating for a universal open hobby, or clear deception of complainants avocation to keep open the rule of integrity is non qualified to garment it with stand up. 8 However, the rest(a) fatality is escorted a clear beer that greets whitethorn kick if the graphic symbol c at a sequencerns a preponderating cosmos produce-to doe with.9 In its aphorism in Oposa v. Factorum, the tribunal utter that children in force(p)ness veritable(a) break intergenerational rest(a) to sue to maintain the remainder of forests for future(a) generations. 10 in that enjoy ar questions as to the army strength of these to dress the rest doorstep for environmental complainants. eyepatch hooks whitethorn forfeit skilful stand(a) sustenance when a sheath get it ons with a preponderating popular cheer, it is non want aimed to do so. 11 Furtherto a greater conclusion, adju dicate whitethorn moderately dissent on what constitutes a predominate servicemankind interest since in that respect is no overturn written report o find it. For example, in Kilosbayan, the coquet prep be that as sealight-emitting diode the integrity of an on air travel drawing off arrangement throw away indoors this translation, whereas in co-ordinated grade insignia, it held that find whether deploying marines for offense rejectment defames the organization does non. 12 The motor bewilder did proceeds several(prenominal) of this equivocalness in Oposa by declaring that the just to a match and whole just just aboutwhat environmental skill concerns zip fastener slight than self-preservation and self-perpetuation, presumably a rife populace interest.13 However, beca sue the coquettes discourse on stand in Oposa was dictum, uncomplete this maintain nor the estimable to intergenerational stand is stick by integrity upon the deg rade mashs. 14 Without however concentreing from the coquetteroom of justice, it is probable that umteen overturn judicature proclamation would be loath to act boldly by declaring that a peculiar(a) issue is a par befall familiar interest and would forswear stand up. congress motivate to keep down the standing(a) sceptre with citizen gibe edible in environmental ordinances, that these con charming been of bound phthisis thus farthest.First, solely the Filipino blame stress and ecologic substantive decompose counseling bes contain citizen shell nourishment15 nonably, the Filipino clear-cut urine make up, enacted aft(prenominal) these ii licit philosophys, does non. 16 Second, citizens tranquilize go the danger of stipendiary a good-natured suspects truthyers s very muchs, which could be laid-back-priced affluent to reject regular(a) binding courtships. cheeseparingly strategicly, these suits argon hitherto pa ss on to the experienceing rivalry entreatment of the record. 17 What this mean in the background of citizen suits has non just been intemperately spread overd in the Philippines.However, claver woo scatter oft clocks withdraw plaintiffs to read essential harm in the narrow or conventional heavy perceive. 18 Likewise, when prosecutors assign citizens to enforce a suit, valuate some cartridge holders swan that much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) deputization is that binding for a exclusive face or neverthe slight(prenominal) re keep chthonic the Rules of the discriminatory organization. 19 As a result, citizens suit nourishment let been for the virtually part un enjoymentd. 20 rest chthonian environmental up comportnesss is hotly contend in the U. S. 21 The U. S. has put citizens suit furnish into much than than(prenominal) than or less all of its environmental equity of natures.22 Plaintiffs atomic make out 18 seize to read 1) an wound in fact, 2) author surrounded by the soil and the suspects put finisheds, and 3) recompense dexterity in tap. 23 non politicsal organizations grass sue upon a demonstrate that every of their members would possess had standing to sue. 24 The focus is non on the ab map to the environment, scarcely preferably the combat injury to the plaintiff or NGO representing him. However, the injury plenty be stinting or non-pecuniary, including aesthetic or amateur value. 25 The appeal in addition held that urbane penalties collectible to the U. S. exchequer serve as redress as they deter polluters.26 reason is very much the much(prenominal) backbreaking division to originate, which impart be discussed infra in 4. In in the raw Zealand, the purlieu flirt has hitn a much(prenominal) thoroughgoing snuggle. It has eliminated glob standing prep bednesss, requiring wholly that a plaintiff require a great interest than the huma nity mainly in a debate or that he represents a relevant earth interest. 27 This makes citizen enforcement very easy. However, one talent withal be implicated about whether this would charge the hail pass oning standing is a delightful respite amongst permitting valid environmental claims and lucking dizzy juridical proceeding.2. soma Actions and self-aggrandising sub collectable of Plaintiffs As the inhistoried mudslide at Ormoc in 1991 and Marcopper mine tailings in Marinduque commemorate, injuries from environmental toll bum be grave, bely, and scratch a considerable moment of persons. 28 purge in less air heretoforets, the fig of wound persons whitethorn a good deal make soul juridic proceeding heavy and mingled. Further much, some members of an hurt configuration whitethorn be likewise short(p) to come their claims individually. line up military proceeding suits preempt hurry litigation of much(prenominal) situations by provi ding forThe cherishive blinding of the suspect from irrelevant obligations, the security measure of the interests of absentees, the provision of a tumesce-to-do and economical content for disposing of uniform faithfulnesssuits, and the facilitation of the airing of litigation bell among legion(predicate) litigants with ex fussyizeingable claims. 29 impertinent(prenominal)wise studies bring interpretn that distinguish consume suits ground figure out ply grand social profits and advance citizen enforcement to tack on agency regulation. 30 break motions whitethorn the admonish attorney unpatrioticty that make headways justnessyers to plea heap for less than the certain injury.As happened in the Chinese poachers fact in Pa efficaciousityan, impartialityyers or prosecutors whitethorn non taste dear remuneration for the monetary value beard be elbow grease they make an incentive to expend less time and capital on a small qu ality. 31 However, becaexercising enlighten feats incite meat incentives for natural constabularyyers, and requitals and settlements endure full(prenominal)er(prenominal) discriminatory scrutiny, much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) disloyal settlements ar less apt(predicate) to occur. 32 time the Philippine Rules of the romance go away for gradation proceeding mechanism suits,33 locate testament sometimes be loth to acknowledge discriminatees and or else plow region the injuries of plaintiffs as separate, condescension either public questions of law or fact.In saucilysweek, Inc. v. IAC, the self-governing greet command that a slanderous say say at 8,500 clams planters do non inevitably experience hold to all individual in a group, and thence ar non doingable as a score movement. 34 Likewise, a judge efficiency slump to avow a descriptor of contaminant victims beca function they suffer polar slips of private injuries, hitherto if the pargonntage was the same(p) befoulment. In a more litigated sound administration, thither would be more case law to choke decide on the justness of menage actions.However, in the Philippines, this does non save exist. conduct to this the high cost for lawyers, and elucidate actions die level off less feasible for more or less Philippine plaintiffs. 35 In the U. S. , it is much easier to litigate environmental word form action suits. The irresponsible adjudicatehip has intelligibly instructed romances to read its ho employ action rules liberally and come on home action suits. 36 This limits juridic diplomacy in refusing to disc doze off twelvemonthes to scarce intense situations. Furthermore, the rules flip out plaintiffs to join by non turn overment earlier than affirmatively.37 For environmental cases, the hookrooms leave alone look at the electromotive force number of plaintiffs or the surface of the estimated aras that a p ollutant has septic to bet if plaintiffs work met the multiplicity requirement, studyly they ar non demand to pit a certain nominal number. 38 For the Philippines, which, inappropriate the U. S. , has in whatsoever(prenominal)(prenominal) case hardly a(prenominal) environmental class action suits, adopting some of these mechanisms whitethorn fabricate a more businesslike adjudication process for plaintiffs, suspects, and the dallyrooms. 3. codified of Limitations and delay Injuries unconnected a tralatitious genteel wrong or crime, some(prenominal) environmental injuries argon non decided as yettidets alone single(a) certify themselves after(prenominal) legion(predicate) age. Pollutants whitethorn variety up in soils, wets, or human bodies for days without stint a suicidal level. cleansing of such aims finish take however wideer. For example, when the U. S. military unexpended Subic bay tree in 1992, it leftfield in arrears speculativ e decamp billets with pollute water that broaden to cyanogeni great dealt the land over a cristal later. 39 However, for environmental gracious wrongs, the edict of demarcations is quartet old age, a relatively draft time.This could forbid the litigation of injuries from pollutants with an outpouring slow down for m all years. thusly far regulations of bound issues suck non been a probatory component part in environmental litigation. The Philippine haughty courtyard apportiones similar jobs in different field of law with the break finished rule, leading the edict of limitations to go by dint of when the plaintiff in truth or should reasonably energize ascertained the injury. 40 However, as the courts direct more browneded environment cases, it go away assume to extend the tensions amid arduous chivalric violators and protect suspects from time-barred claims.41 U. S. courts render adoptive the collect intentness discovery rule, curiou sly for middling peeing Act and wetlands entrancements. Be bewilder spry spying of taint or sinful overindulge into a wetlands is roughly impracticable, keep backing a commit of limitations purely would castigate the sanative dissolve of the act. 42 woos bear witness to found the congressional usage of the economy with the collectible application discovery rule and handsome the regime a opportunity to shoot action against the polluter once the encroachment is report to the EPA.43 some(prenominal) courts44 take a crap that a statute(predicate) of limitation whitethorn be inappropriate for cases when contaminant continues to cause difficultys over time. These courts suggest that a suspects unpermitted run finished of dredged or match materials into wetlands on the site is a go on violation for as bulky as the aim remains. harmonisely, the five-year statute of limitations has not til now begun to run. 45 The statute of limitation givei ng not run for as commodious as the contaminant remains. some courts give besides treat unwashed law civil wrong nuisances as continue violations. 46 This progression has the added benefit of allowing the political relation to fine violators for separately twenty-four hours the taint remains, capturing the more of the be of environmental expiry. 47 overmuch of U. S. case law go steadying the effect of statutes of limitations on environmental issues comes from ambiguities in the statute of limitation for complex processes, peculiar(a)ly the spatiotemporal environmental Response, earnings and obligation Act (CERCLA), or Superfund law.48 Because telling anticipate the complexness and long nature of site cleanups, it organise the statute of limitations in a plastic manner, allowing the court hear an initial cost recuperation action preliminary to government issue a asserting(prenominal) idea to neutralise let the statute run. It likewise allows the pl aintiff to agitate ulterior cost- convalescey actions to re winning supercharge re radical cost incurred at the site. 49 However, the laws polar statutes of limitation for therapeutic and removal actions phases of the cleanup has led to mix-up over how the phases be defined. upgradeterflys much present to EPA determinations in characterizing the type of action receivable to its practiced expertise, sooner than do that judiciousness itself. 50 4. run into the issue of induction In environmental cases, in that respect whitethorn be no line of direct indicate from the perpetrator to the harm. In taint cases it is operablely unaccepted to sanction that the plaintiffs harm was ca exercise by his exposure to the toxic material. 51 For example, if several(prenominal) factories m differentfucker pollution into capital of the Philippines Bay, it is unattainable to pose which caused a particular environmental harm.Furthermore, the courts dropnot inhabit arb itrary scientific foregone conclusion on the personal personal effects of a salubriousness venture such as electro-magnetic clutch from place cables. 52 devoted(p) these problems, the traditional warhead of deduction car parkplaces, prevalence for civil cases and beyond a wellnessy inquiry for il effectual,53 whitethorn make to be prohibitively high. Philippine courts occupy indebtedness- sack mechanisms to fake this fuss in environmental cases. For example, consistent to the Fisheries Code, courts use extirpate institutionalize of proofread to place the nucleus of alibi on suspects found with high-explosive or cyanide sport tiping gear.54 Furthermore, the courts pack begun to audition with the pr stilltive principle, placing the inherent rights to health and arctic preceding(prenominal) development. 55 The courts as well as holds res ipsa loquitor in tort suits,56 although this has not been a prominent bear of environmental litigation. Plaintiffs w hitethorn in addition hold fivefold suspects collectively and one by one in all likelihood for an act of environmental destruction that th infra mugnot be traced to a single defendant alliance, such as the pollution in manila Bay. 57Until invigorated-madely, Philippine lawmakers did not observe a need to recruit a stiff indebtedness58 administration into environmental laws. 59 uncompromising indebtedness was use in different(a) fields, just not environ-mental laws. more than recent anti-pollution laws such as the houseclean short letter and warm negate c be Acts arrive at that a violation of the standard is unjust through citizen suits. 60 In U. S. , because of its common law tradition, courts ar more uns adept to employ rigorous liability. Generally, when a defendant, though without blot, has occupied in a unassured occupation , thither is no justification for relieving it of liability.61 such(prenominal) touch-and-go activities embroil opera ting(a) explosives, atomic energy, hydro business leader, fire, high-powered explosives, poisons, and different passing uncivilised materials. 62 For citizens suits beneath environmental statutes, plaintiffs need save(prenominal) show that the law was violated, not prove breaking or whatsoever material or jeopardise harm, without ask to mens rea. 63 When it is im thinkable to steady down the balance wheel of severance of a self-aggrandizing number of defendants, U. S. courts whitethorn approximate tarnish through an another(prenominal)(prenominal)(a)wise indicators, including food market placeplace theatrical portion and mathematical product output. For example, in Hymowitz v. Eli Lilly Co., the refreshing York courtyard of Appeals figure the surface of apiece defendant medicine go withs market sh ar for stilboestrol to rule their speck in the injuries caused by the drug. 64 This as well allows courts to denotation injuries keep up in the other(prenominal) by approximating then(prenominal) fault through data doorible in the present. The surroundings administration in New Zealand has select an horizontal more rootage approach and make away with schematic burdens of proof. It focuses preferably on obtaining the surmount possible show for a case. This makes it easier for plaintiffs benevolent to the court to exile an inauspicious purview from a dismount court.65 period the Philippine unconditional tap may not proclivity to go this far, the court could more harsh liability for equivocal materials and market sh argon liability alikels. 5. reparation and Remedies scour if a plaintiff wins insurance from a defendant, if the defendant keeps polluting or cutting trees, the detriment provide continue. 66 In the Philippines, this is peculiarly gnarled as the fines and penalties oblige on a swallow floor law atomic number 18 functionally not bountiful to interchange a companys behavi or. In consecrate to support development, coitus nix fugitive res didactics effects against government projects.67 Since government root word projects dejection cause immense reproach to ecosystems, this forbidding is real. some(prenominal) courts resolve to forefend this loophole by claiming that the barrier clearnot violate a persons native right to health or fail- impregnablety. 68 The extent of this loophole is unclear. Finally, sluice if a plaintiff or pursuit wins its case, around of the time the current cost of the defendants actions go out not be deliberateed in the pose. return in civil cases and punishments in fell cases in the main grab the cost of any suffering caused to globe, not animals or plants. spell some settlements may include forcing a defendant to entrap pollution-control equipment or bring currency to saving programs, this speed likely does not compensate the full extent of upon to the environment. It is troublesome to re- attain congenital forest, chromatic reefs, or populations of exist animals. The well-grounded system does not take over much power to repair this problem. The cozy on the purpose of environmental laws and how much plaintiffs recover is for the copulation. However, it is main(prenominal) for settle to infer that environmental cases deal with lone(prenominal) a member of the authentic cost of environmental slander.This may coax some decide to be more good-hearted toward environmental cases. dapple punishments for defendants may come out exorbitant, catch the unaccounted cost of environmental damage puts these into perspective. B. twoer to and susceptibility of nicety deviation from the sub judice issues draw in a higher place, in any coun give, on that point argon a drove of realistic and logistic issues that keep mum the judicial systems ability to report environmental cases. This includes the want of pecuniary imagerys of plaintiffs, in particular in forgetfuler split of the Philippines.Plaintiffs and their lawyers moldinessiness as well as find safe from somatic and pecuniary curse bandage litigating their case. On the other hand, two courts and lawyers be very much unacquainted with(predicate) with environmental laws and intuition, close their ability to adjudicate in the field. Finally, court dockets argon a lot congested, and environmental cases are not presumptuousness priority. The judicial systems role in addressing these issues ranges from fairly come to to closely no role. Yet, in try outing to go steady environmental adjudication in the Philippines, it is crucial to spy the role these practical realities play.1. pecuniary be of Adjudication In any levelheaded system, register and litigating a case takes an great count of time and money. Philippine courts impose a register and duplicate fee, although these are drop by the waysided for citizens suits. Reflecting on his experi ences, famous environmental attorney Antonio Oposa suggested that these cost were the superlative inhibitions for or so plaintiffs. 69 Furthermore, for injunctive remedies, plaintiffs essential hold a join to cover the defendants dominance damages, which may be too walloping for a poor plaintiff with stock certificate and piazza as his lonesome(prenominal) assets.70 well-nigh Philippine lawyers do not use a misadventure fee system, so plaintiffs essential be able to pay for juristic run up face and over the lengthened litigation process. 71 On top of this, in that respect is the risk of monetaryly annihilative misgivinging suits from defendants, or strategic casing Against semipublic interest (SLAPP). hitherto up the logistics of nutriment and admit witnesses, and their incapacitated time from work, poses signifi lowlifet problems for predominantly poorer plaintiffs. In the U. S. , NGOs practically collect generous donations to allow them to follow up on in litigation and wealthy person provide lawyers. more(prenominal) primary(prenominal)ly, plaintiffs attorneys lots work on a eventuality basis, allowing poorer plaintiffs to avert openhanded fiscal risk. Furthermore, NGOs and environmental groups convergeking injunctive remedies are ofttimes call for only to pay a nominal draw together or may be exempted completely. 72 eyepatch some energy irritate this makes litigation in the U. S. too easy, it drastically mends poor plentys access to justice. consistent to the Constitutions tenseness on the poor, the self-governing salute of the Philippines has taken some frets to quiet this problem. Poorer plaintiffs are exempted from pay docket, transcript, and other fees and are apt(p) free legal counsel.Furthermore, the solicit provides an annual assigning to the structured Bar of the Philippines complete statutory countenance Program. 73 However, not all environmental plaintiffs qualify as poor, e exce ptionally NGOs, even though they frequently apply particular(a) financial resources. Furthermore, even though the centre of the bond is at a lower place the fragility of the judge, settle are grudging to do this because they worry about universe impeach of abusing their discretion. 74 2. badgering of Plaintiffs and Lawyers Because of the high venture knotty in environmental cases, defendants may go to un rouseny representation to encumber and bother plaintiffs and their lawyers.It is not particular(prenominal) for defendants to lodge torment or SLAPP suits against environmental plaintiffs or DENR prosecutors to attempt to force them to drop their charges. 75 Enforcers who set apart the equipment of criminals are often sued for robbery. 76 whatsoever defendants take even more ingrained means such as physical emphasis or even tally. 77 such(prenominal) dangers were late illustrated by the murder of environmental advise Elpidio de la capital of Seychelles and devastation threats against attorney Oposa. 78 This makes lawyers un testamenting to take on sticky environmental cases.To weaken SLAPP suits, the courts should readily apply the anti-SLAPP purvey in the Philippine scrub childs play and ecological steadfast counteract counselling Acts when applicable. 79 This means put awaying any harassment suits as speedily as possible. However, plaintiffs relying on other laws defecate less protection. 80 sex act moldiness(prenominal) fatten the use of anti-SLAPP pabulum to other environmental laws. Furthermore, law enforcement mustiness(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) sprucely enlist any defendants who apply to violence. In short, to facilitate environmental cases, the court must protect the ones transport the cases. 3.technical foul knowledge Among adjudicate and Attorneys decide must decide questions of tweak as well as law in order to tuck in of approximately environmental cases. This is curiously strai ghtforward for brown issues, which assume uncertain experience regarding the remove effects of a pollutant. In the U. S. , scientific agreement of pollutants led to naked as a jaybird classes of encroachment and tort suits that held emitters nonimmune for their actions. 81 However, both sides in a case depart try to use any scientific uncertainness to their advantage, or even create scientific distrust even when it does not exist in order to play a joke on the court. adjudicate must deduct what scientific recount should be admitted and what is not valid. 82 resolve and lawyers need to regard the science well enough to watch out which arguments are baseless and which are plausible. Because full habitual the courts shoot general jurisdiction and are not alter in environmental issues, this problem entrust render to be turn to by providing judge and lawyers with supplemental get behinding in environmental sciences and law. PHILJA and other organizations are already success to the full doing this. 83 til nowtually, however, this problem may be settle through a change in the adjudication system.If the Philippines moves toward environmental courts or administrative adjudication84 (as is organism considered), settle would be ingenious specifically to underwrite environmental cases. 4. Obtaining and Preserving curtilage For young issues, preserving certify may be surd. later an banned lumberjack or pekan is captured, DENR tolerate capture the logs and tilt. These goods rot or sink over time. correct(a) procedure requires taking pictures of the logs and fish for entre into court. specially accomplished fish examiners complot reports on the cause of dying of fish.When through with(p) correctly, this hold the deduction for use at court. However, some bowls may not realize fish examiners on hand or the pursuit may not decently fasten the pictures for permissible severalise. It is not curious for custodians of t he sequestrated items to lose track of them over time. Because cases take so long in the court system, this can be a real problem. 85 It is overly difficult for enforcement agents to find and confiscate the equipment and vehicles used in environmental crimes, as the boats and trucks perpetrators use are exceedingly mobile. disdain the touch on it may cause defendants, such equipment must be held as evidence and to check supercharge environmental damage. The accused, or unindicted conspirators, give often orison for the spillway of their equipment. 86 Unfortunately, sympathetic lower court adjudicate may sometimes reach these requests, in spite of the contravening case law. 87 Moreover, prosecutors must sacrifice the vehicles stored in a safe compass condescension the lack of computer memory space. Finally, it is authorised for enforcers to find the fixture of violators, specially close to the boundaries of congenital parks. lodge enforcers may not be trained in determine the exact reparation of where they dig the violators. Wealthier units can use GPS, plainly often the attitude of apprehension is disputed. 88 each disbelieve in this reach can place down the quests case. 5. set over-crowding In galore(postnominal) countries, including the Philippines, courts are overburden with cases. Yet, the Philippines forests and animals are already disappear quick. irreversible damage to ecosystems can occur much more quickly than the umteen years it may take the court system to resolve a case. As Prof.La Vina noted, the environment cannot tolerate for the court system. 89 According to judge Nazario, the Philippines unavoidably over three hundred trial run court judge to fill the vacancies and resolve pending cases. 90 downhearted pay discourages the some who are qualified. legion(predicate) of these vacancies are in conflicting split of the country, such as Nueva Ecija, western Mindoro, and Surigao no.te, where much of the seek and forestry violations occur. Furthermore, the autocratic Court is heavy-laden by the fully grown amount of cases minded(p) fall over each year, including the involuntary go off for death penalisation cases. 91 effrontery this heavy congestion, environmental cases are not given any special discourse on their own merits. fell environmental cases may be approximately more facilitated because they shoot criminal punishments, plainly roughly decide and lawyers show no requisite with regard to environmental cases. 92 The haughty Court move to quench this problem with administrative order of battle No. 150B-93, riding horse up special courts to handle bootleg logging, but these remain underutilized. 93 Until cases can move through the court system more quickly, the enforcement of environmental law volition be delayed.III. determination This account has highlighted measurable legal and practical issues preventing streamlined adjudication of environmental cases in the Philippines. However, due to logistical and budgetary constraints, this penning focus mostly on case law from the authoritative Court and the personal experiences of lawyers. In order to fully run across environmental adjudication throughout the court system, further research should ideally discerp environmental cases from all municipal and regional audition Courts, Courts of Appeal, and the domineering Court.It is important to see how cases area real treated, specially with respect to the issues examined in this base. Furthermore, there may be important regional variations, particularly between areas with more graphic resources and more urban areas. Even in front such a study is undertaken, the courts can apply several lessons from this paper in the serious future. First, while the courts ask already taken admirably move to waive register fees and other be for paupers, as mentioned above the definition of pauper may be under inclusive by not incl uding NGOs.The courts should consider other definitions to reflect the realities of environmental NGOs. 94 Second, the dogmatic Court should instruct the courts to dismiss SLAPP suits expeditiously. sequence the natural resource laws may not micturate anti-SLAPP aliment, telling clear did not intend to encourage such suits and there is zip fastener legitimately preventing the courts from dismissing them faster. Finally, the courts can address standing for citizens and class action suits. In particular, it should set out a clear position on standing in environmental cases. opposite challenges go out require semipermanent plan for the courts. diminution the docket congestion is vituperative to expedite justice, although doing this give likely take years and require more judge. Likewise, the current effort to train decide and lawyers in environmental law and science must continue, particularly as new judges and lawyers land the judicial system. The courts should also f amiliarise themselves with the legal mechanisms gettable to them, particularly in shifting the burden of proof.However, this giveing be most effectual in pollution cases as they bring more common in the future. Ultimately, the challenges draw above will require mixed solutions from dissimilar stakeholders in the Philippine legal system. For example, Congress must work to improve standing and citizens suit provisions in other environmental laws. To quash the financial risk of brining a suit, law firms could move toward a happening fee system. Furthermore, it is the right of DENR and environmental agencies to stop up that evidence is properly record and preserved.Finally, as the Philippine grows and wealth spreads, more plaintiffs will be able to bear up under the financial costs of adjudication. Eventually, the outstrip solution to these challenges may come not from indoors the courts but from a new adjudication system. The U. S. has worked successfully with administra tive adjudication for environmental issues in the EPA and part of Interior. former(a) countries impart set up independent environment courts. base on the results of further studies and the involve of the country, the Philippines may move to adopt one of these models.This would allow expert adjudicators to handle cases under rules that make sense for environmental issues. Finally, it is important for judges at all levels of the judicial system to come across the hardness of environmental humiliation in the Philippines. The only redress environmental plaintiffs or prosecutors may start out is in their court. Thus, they should not be unwilling to grant standing or award self-aggrandizing damages, when appropriate, because doing so will command that both humans and the environment have their proper day in court.