Monday, September 30, 2019
The mix marketing plan below is for the 2009 Mitsubishi Outlander compact all wheel drive (AWD) priced under $40,000. This market plan below describes the target market and objectives that are necessary to capture the target market. Furthermore, the plan offers recommendations and some of them methods necessary to promote the Mistubishi Outlander and create awareness of its release on to the market in 2009. Also in the mix market plan is situational analysis that is broken down into four parts. The first part is the current product which describes the brand and core product which in this case is the Mistubishi Outlander. The second part discusses the factors that will affect the price of the Outlander such as competition and demand. The third aspect talks about the current distribution and method in which to distribute the Outlander. This part also talks about the intensity of distribution and the intermediaries used to distribute the Outlander and the factors that influence the distribution such as storage and transport of the Outlanders from point of manufacture to the point of sale. The fourth situational analysis aspect is the promotional theme and the elements integrated in the promotion mix. The theme is that of cross between an all wheel drive and a sports utility vehicles that is both excellent as urban cruiser as well as an off road medium sized vehicle. The recommended target market for the Outlander is mainly the medium sized family that enjoys occasional family trips out of urban localities. The age group of the consumer interested in purchasing the Mistubishi outlander will range between 25 to the 50 years of age. This demographic will most likely reside in the upper middle class suburbs of Perth. The main aim of this mix marketing plan is to make consumers familiarise themselves with the Outlander, promote the outlander to all intermediaries through workshops and seminars. Increase volume of promotional content of the Outlander through media channels such as online advertising, email promotions, radio and television advertisements. The customers are made of the Mistubishi Diamond Advantage. Situational Analysis Current Product: The Mistubishi outlander is a cross over all wheel drive (AWD) from the product line of the Mitsubishi Motor Company. The Outlander is a shopping type of consumer product that is in its Introduction stage. It is a compact AWD that can be driven in urban areas as well as off road. However, the Outlander does not have Electronic Stability control system (ESP) but does come with an expandable row making it a seven seater and a bisected rear door for easy accesses to the rear cabin space. The ESP can always be added on to the future cars by adopting the system that is used in other Mitsubishi models. Current Pricing: The current influences on the price of the Outlander include demand, competition and other external factors such as economic situation and good value pricing (Kotler et al.2007, 350). The Mistubishi Outlander is in the monopolistic market as they are many sellers offering alternatives (Pierre and Toulemonde 2009, 1347) .AWDs such as the Toyota Rav Four and Nissan Extrail. The pricing objective of the Outlander is based on the price of competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s model of SUVs and the mix of models of the Outlander offered by Mistubishi under $40000. Current Distribution: The outlander is distributed indirectly from the factory through intermediaries such as the dealerships. Intermediaries provide a link between the manufacturer and consumer (Ansari, Mela and Neslin 2008, 60).The dealers include organisations that specialise in Mistubishi vehicle sales and services. Distribution of the outlander is selective for easier negotiations and one tone customer interaction. Some of the factors that may affect distribution include transport and Storage of the Mistubishi outlanders from the point of manufacture to the point of sale. Current Promotion: The main objective is to get the consumers familiarise themselves with the new Mitsubishi Outlander. The theme is that of a sports utility vehicles that is both excellent as urban cruiser as well as an off road medium sized vehicle. Advertising, direct Marketing sales promotions are some of the methods used to show to the customer the sporting side as well as its ability to use as urban vehicle through events such as the Dakar Rally. Recommended Target Market The recommended target market for the Outlander is mainly the medium sized family that enjoys occasional family trips out of urban localities. The age group of the consumer interested in purchasing the Mistubishi outlander will range between 25 to the 50 years of age. The consumer will most likely come from middle class urban setting and enjoys showing off the off-road capabilities of their car while being a comfortable and stylish car to drive around town. This target market has the most potential because the outlander is an urban sports vehicle that has an extra row of seats to accommodate a total of 7 passengers as compared to its rivals on the market within the same price range. The outlander also comes with a lot more standard features as compared to its rivals on the market. Some off the unique features include interchangeable all wheel drive that can be selected at any driving speed. The outlander also has a compact third row seat that does not compromise boot space and is still accommodate two extra passengers. Recommended Marketing Objective:Ã¢â¬â¢ In order to keep the Mitsubishi Outlander ahead of the other brand of cross over AWDs on the market, some short term marketing strategies will have to be put in place. These include : Making the consumers familiarise themselves with the Outlander, promote the outlander to all intermediaries through workshops and seminars. Increase volume of promotional content of the Outlander through media channels such as online advertising, email promotions, radio and television advertisements. Another approach would be to promote the Outlander through competitions, sponsorships of sporting activities and discounted sales to the first few customers. Boost the appeal of the outlander by offering membership to outlander car club through the Mitsubishi Diamond Advantage as part of a package deal for the purchase of an Outlander which is a 10 year 160 000 km drive train warranty and the 5 year unlimited 130 000 km warrant plus roadside assistance. Product recommendations Since the product at hand is a motor vehicle, the product packaging will not be required however all other aspects of the product such as branding extensions will be taken into consideration. The product at focus is the Outlander which comes from the product mix of Mitsubishi motor company; it only has one product lines with a narrow width. Therefore, only the depth of the product mix can be explored to give the consumer a variety to pick from the range of Outlanders available. The Mitsubishi Outlander is offered in three models namely the LS, XLS and the optional XLS Luxury pack. The Three models offered come with different options and at a varied price range depending on the added extras. However, the base model still has a starting base price of $31,990 that is fixed depending on whether the customer chooses to add extras to the vehicle. The base model of the outlander is the Ls which comes with 2.4 litre 4 cylinder MIVEC engine, driver and passenger side airbags. The LS models also comes with All Wheel Control 4WD (AWC), air condition, cruise control, Keyless entry, power windows, a steering wheel with audio controls, Stability and traction control. The XLS model has added on features that the LS does not have such as: Continuously variable automatic transmission (CVT), INVECS Smart Logic and 6 steps Sports Mode, Paddle gear shifts, Smart Key, Bluetooth voice activated phone connectivity, chrome grill surround, 18Ã¢â¬ alloy Wheels, Reverse parking sensors, Adaptive Front Lighting system, High intensity Discharge Head Lamps (HID), Fog Lamps and Privacy Glass. The third model of the outlanders is the optional XLS Luxury pack. This model has additional feature to the XLS model. These key features include 18Ã¢â¬ 7 spoke wheels, chrome exterior highlights, electric sunroof, Rockford Fosgate premium sound system with 9 speakers, Rear entertainment system, Mitsubishi Multi Communication system (MMCS) including satellite navigation and reverse camera, automatic dusk sensing head lamps, automatic rain sensing wipers, leather seats facings, power driver seat and heated front seat. Pricing recommendations The pricing recommendations for the Mitsubishi Outlander will include the product line price, product bundle pricing and optional Ã¢â¬âproduct pricing. The product line price in this situation is considered because the product line width is narrow and limited to the Outlander models namely the LS, XLS and The Optional XLS model. Therefore, the pricing of the models will also be affected by what model is being sold through the intermediaries to the consumer. The purpose is to insure profit maximisation of the base model LS by mass distribution to the companies and leasing companies. With the LS having least of the features, making it the level entry model of the Outlander models. The second thing that is considered when it comes to product line pricing is the optional product line pricing. This will help increase the Mitsubishi profits from the sale optional accessories that can be added to the features of the OutlanderÃ¢â¬â¢s base model the LS. Some of the features intended for the target market include, 18Ã¢â¬ alloy wheels, reverse parking sensors, High intensity Discharge Head Lamps (HID), Fog Lamps and Privacy Glass, electric sunroof, chrome exterior highlights, Rockford Fosgate premium sound system with 9 speakers and rear entertainment system. The perceived value of the extras is reasonable priced as all extras added on to the Outlander models come with a 5 year 130000 km warranty. The last recommendation for product line price is product bundle pricing, where the Outlander models are sold as bundles. This can be achieved when either selling the Outlanders with just the basic features at a much lower price as compared to the base models. The target market is leasing companies, private and government organisations in bulk. Furthermore, pricing adjustments can be made to increase sales such as discounts on bulk buys and end of financial year sales and further discounts for early or cash payments. The Outlander is not new to the car market, therefore the new product pricing strategy that is recommended is the market Ã¢â¬âpenetrating pricing strategy to attract a large number of buyers and share market as itÃ¢â¬â¢s a medium quality and medium price product. Distribution recommendations The recommend method of distribution channel is using indirect channel through intermediaries such as agents, retailers and wholesalers. The intermediaries act as the third party link between the Mitsubishi and the consumers. The involvement of intermediaries allows the Mitsubishi to reach geographical dispersed groups and avoid direct investment. The Mitsubishi car company does not have to have a direct involvement with credit facilities or have local knowledge of customers. Furthermore, Mitsubishi can earn a greater return by investing in their main business rather than in direct marketing. The intermediary can deal directly with the customers at a more efficient and effective level often provide a supplier or manufacturer more returns than the manufacture can achieve on their own. This due to the amounts of contacts they have in the industry, experience, specialisation and scale of operation. Therefore, the channel of distribution is the retailer channel. That is from the manufacturer to the retailer then the consumer. The retailers sell the Outlander directly to the customers by so doing making the level of distribution intensity selective. This enables Mitsubishi deal directly with a few selected dealers that sale and provided services of goods manufactured by the Mitsubishi motor company. Channel conflict is minimised by dealing directly with intermediaries who are responsible for delivery and sale of the Outlanders. By doing so the conflict most likely to arise is between the Mitsubishi and the exclusive distributors. Promotion recommendations Before any promotional recommendations can be made in terms of promotions for the Mitsubishi Outlander, a number of things have to be considered. The major decision that has to be made includes objective setting, advertisement budget, advertising strategy and evaluation. When it comes to setting the budget, the product life cycle (PLC) has to be taken into consideration. From the introduction of the new Outlander where light advertising and pre introduction publicity to heavy advertising and awareness. This is the growth stage where brand loyalty and personal selling are greatly enforced. The maturity stage involves the decrease in sales promotion personal selling and the decline stage is where advertisements and promotions reduce with limited sales. These stages will determine the over head for the budget. The other promotional recommendation is the public relations mix and media selection through which to do the advertising. The media strategy includes selecting the media format. For example the newspaper has mass audience following and is good for targeting a specific audience via quick distribution. Magazines are mainly for segmented audience however, the information is intensive and highly visual. Television combines both sight and sound however most ads are ignored and only good when trying to build brand awareness and if there are adequate financial resources for the advertisement. However, radio has immediate delivery and good for stimulate impulse purchasing, cheap to advertise but does not have a visual impact. Last, there is outdoor advertising at the car dealership on the lawns where there is great traffic flow. Sales promotion is also another way to attract new customers to the Mistubishi Outlander. This also helps retain loyal Outlander customers and also regain past purchasers who have no longer purchase Mistubishi Outlander. This can be achieved through cash Ã¢â¬â back offers, competitions, premium offers offering more test drives of the Outlander models. Promotions can also be done through personal selling and interpersonal communication with target consumer groups. This involves two way communications between sales people and individual customers. The sales people are the link between the Mistubishi motor company and the customers and vice-versa. Another method that can be used is direct communication using electronic network tools and technologies via the internet. Telemarketing, telesales other forms of direct marketing that can be used to promote the sale of the Outlander. Other unconventional methods of promotions that can be used are: viral marketing by passing on information to others creating exponential growth in the messages response. Viral communications incurs very little expenses however there is limited control over receipt of the messages. The forms of passing information and advertising that are becoming popular blogs. Blogging is one method of creating hype for a product with no costs and also be able to facilitate communication between organisations and their stakeholders. Endorsements by celebrities via paid verbal testimonials or physical association with a brand. The upside is that advertising air time is practically free and the public is often not informed whether the celebrity is renumerated by the company. Conclusion. The above mix marketing plan is designed for the 2009 Mitsubishi Outlander all wheel drive AWDs. The mix market plan describes the target audience and recommends ways in which to capture the intended market. The plan has further recommendation on how to create awareness for the 2009 Outlander and methods of price, distribution and promotion. The mix market plan also has situational analysis that breaks down the recommended mix marketing strategy into four aspects that current product, current pricing, current distribution and the current promotion. The mix market plan also explains the chosen theme that is a cross between an all wheel drive and sports utility vehicle that is also excellent as an urban cruiser. Furthermore, there is emphasis on the outlanderÃ¢â¬â¢s unique features for vehicles whose base price is under $40,000.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The term Ã¢â¬Å"motivationÃ¢â¬ , which is defined using various terminologies, is often used to describe different types of behavior. Motivation is the Ã¢â¬Å"internal state or the condition that activates behavior and gives it direction; the desire or want that energizes and directs goal-oriented behavior, or the influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behaviorÃ¢â¬ . (Huitt, 2001) Motivation is specific to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s make-up, their personal interests, wants and desires, or need to fulfill a goal. Several factors influence an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s level of motivation: pay, opportunity for advancement, growth and development, job security, honesty and integrity, working conditions, reward and recognition. Employee recognition is often praised at a Ã¢â¬Å"successful motivatorÃ¢â¬ . To understand what factors influence motivation we need to understand the research and theories developed to define and explain motivation. Discussion Motivational theories dating back to the early 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"provide a foundation to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s motivational conceptsÃ¢â¬ . Robbins, 2005) Abraham Maslow introduced the Ã¢â¬Å"hierarchy of needsÃ¢â¬ theory suggesting that needs are a physiological or psychological deficiency that a person feels the urge to satisfy. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory proposes that individuals are motivated by multiple needs and that these needs are present in a Ã¢â¬Å"hierarchicalÃ¢â¬ order. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory was that an unsatisfied need influences an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour and once the need is satisfied it is no longer a motivator. The model of needs was developed using five levels of human needs: hysiological, safety, social, esteem, and self actualization. Physiological and safety levels were described as the lower levels of the model following the idea that these needs are satisfied externally. To satisfy the lower level needs of hunger, shelter, security is accomplished by things such as pay, medical benefits, or tenure. The Ã¢â¬Å"higher-order needs which are met internally include social, esteem, and self actualization. The concept is that an individual works through each level of the model one by one. Each level must be satisfied before moving on to the next level eventually attaining self-actualization. Self-actualization is the point in which one has reached their maximum potential. (Robbins, 171) Douglas McGregor had opposing theories Ã¢â¬Å"Theory X and Theory YÃ¢â¬ to explain an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour in work and organizational life. McGregor theorized that Ã¢â¬Å"management involved more than simply giving orders and coercing obedience; it was a careful balancing of needs of the organization with the needs of individualsÃ¢â¬ . McGregor followed MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"hierarchy of needsÃ¢â¬ philosophy to describe human needs and to support the belief that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s need is satisfied through work. Studying how managers interacted with employees, McGregor identified a set of beliefs managers used to assess employees. The assumptions identified in Theory X are based on the lower level needs (physiological, safety) on the hierarchy model. This portrayed a somewhat negative viewpoint using the assumption Ã¢â¬Å"that most people will avoid work because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like it and must be persuaded to put forth significant effort. The individuals in this category are not interested in being Ã¢â¬Å"self-ledÃ¢â¬ , do not care to take on responsibility as they are content following directions. Ã¢â¬ (Robbins, 2005) In opposition to this, Theory Y uses the upper level of the needs (social, esteem, self-actualization) hierarchy model stating that most individuals are Ã¢â¬Å"self-ledÃ¢â¬ to accomplish goals in which they have set for themselves. In this positive view, McGregor identifies that employees regard work as a natural activity. This premise led to the belief that motivation occurs due to an individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ drive to satisfy their needs. McGregor identified those managers of Theory Y type employees believed that people inherently like to work. A result of this belief the manager pushes more responsibility on the employee in an attempt shape employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s goals to align with the organization. Following the steps of Maslow and McGregor, Frederick Herzberg developed a motivational theory based on the Ã¢â¬Å"needsÃ¢â¬ concept. Trying to answer the question Ã¢â¬Å"what do people want from workÃ¢â¬ , he developed the Ã¢â¬Å"Two FactorÃ¢â¬ theory. Based upon his studies he believed that satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work arose from different factors, and was not simply opposing reactions. Hygiene needs are defined as company policy, work conditions, relationship with supervisor, and salary by Herzberg. He believed that people strive to achieve hygiene needs because without them they are unhappy, but once satisfied the effect will wear off. End result or meaning is that satisfaction is temporary. This factor indicates that people are not motivated by addressing these hygiene needs, fulfillment just appeases the individual. HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s second factor is identifying Ã¢â¬Å"motivatorsÃ¢â¬ , suggesting that individuals are motivated by enabling them to reach for and satisfy real motivating factors such as personal growth, development, recognition, responsibility and achievement which correspond to a high level of meaning and fulfillment. Maslow, McGregor, and Herzberg were pioneers in motivational study. The amount of research on the topic did not end there. Contemporary researchers have continued collecting data and developing theories in the subject area of motivation. The concept of Ã¢â¬Å"what motivates an employeeÃ¢â¬ continues to intrigue researches. Data collected today is not a direct dispute to past theory but a reflection on the change of the times, the change in work environment. Clayton Alderfer modified MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Hierarchy of NeedsÃ¢â¬ introducing the ERG theory; consisting of three need categories: Ã¢â¬Å"existenceÃ¢â¬ , relatedness, and Ã¢â¬Å"growthÃ¢â¬ . AlderferÃ¢â¬â¢s theory suggested that movement between the need levels is quite simple, resulting in a regression when an individual does not meet a higher-order need. The ERG theory starts with Ã¢â¬Å"existenceÃ¢â¬ identifying an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s need to satisfy hunger, thirst, and sex, correlating with MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s lower level needs of physiological and safety. Alderfer classifies the need for successful relationships with others (family, friends, coworkers, etc) as Ã¢â¬Å"relatednessÃ¢â¬ aligning with MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of social need and esteem. Lastly, Alderfer categorized a personÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for personal growth and increasing competence as Ã¢â¬Å"growthÃ¢â¬ . (Robbins, 2005) The ERG theory although similar to MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs theory differs in the philosophy that people can work towards fulfilling the different level of needs at the same time. Contrary to MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs that an individual must obtain and satisfy a Ã¢â¬Å"needÃ¢â¬ before attempting to work on the next need level Alderfer theorized that these areas are simultaneous. In addition to believing that individuals worked on the different needs categories at the same time he also introduced the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"regressionÃ¢â¬ . As an individual attempts to satisfy a high lever need frustration my occur resulting in regression to satisfying a lower level need. This idea proposes potential impacts in employee motivation. An employee can become frustrated if the opportunity for growth and development is not made available resulting in regression towards the Ã¢â¬Å"relatednessÃ¢â¬ need. This leads to Ã¢â¬Å"de-motivationÃ¢â¬ where as the employee loses focus on satisfying the Ã¢â¬Å"growthÃ¢â¬ need and begins to concentrate on building and maintaining relationships with others. David McClelland developed a motivational theory based on needs as well. McClelland proposed that individual needs are acquired over time and are shaped by the early experiences faced in life. McClelland identified three needs influence an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation and effectiveness in an organization: achievement, power and affiliation. McClelland based his theory on the thought that everyone prioritizes needs differently. He also believed that needs were acquired based on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences in life. The need to succeed or excel (achievement) is associated with individuals who are driven to do things better. These individuals are motivated by personal responsibility in identifying solutions to problems, desire immediate feedback on their performance to determine if they are improving or not, and set challenging goals. The need for power is the desire to have impact, to be influential, and to control othersÃ¢â¬ . (Robbins, 2005) Power can be categorized in one of two types; personal and institutional. Individuals driven to direct others when its unwanted is personal power, whereas those who want to organize the efforts of others to further the goals of the company is institutional power. Individuals who possess the need for institutional power are more effective leading employees than one who desires to control people. Individual who have a high need of power are likely to follow a path of continued promotion over time. Behaviors including enjoying being in charge, wanting to influence others, prefer competitive situations, and are more concerned with prestige and influence over others versus effective performance are associated with the need for power. And finally, McClelland identified the need for affiliation. People with the need for affiliation seek harmonious relationships, social approval, and need to feel accepted by other people. Individuals seeking to fulfill the affiliation need prefer to work in situations that provide social interaction; they enjoy being part of a group and tend to conform to the norm of the group. There are two types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is when individuals are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, or they believe it is important. Many of the motivational theories discussed in the first portion of this paper are associated with intrinsic motivation. Maslow, McGregor, Herzberg, Alderfer, and McClelland based their theories of behavior on individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ desire to satisfy basic and advanced needs. These desires are based on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s level of personal satisfaction and the theory focuses on the natural tendency toward growth and development. Additional studies have been conducted with theories based on Ã¢â¬Å"extrinsicÃ¢â¬ motivation. Extrinsic motivation is when an individual is compelled to perform based on external factors like money, recognition, rewards, ect. Cognitive theories such as Ã¢â¬Å"Goal-SettingÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"ReinforcementÃ¢â¬ , and Equity have received a similar amount of attention as needs-based theories. Cognitive theory is based on the idea that Ã¢â¬Å"high intrinsic motivation levels are strongly resistant to the detrimental impacts of extrinsic rewards. No matter how interesting or exciting a job is there is still an expectation for some type of extrinsic payment. For those positions or jobs that fall in between the highly satisfying intrinsically and low level less interesting work cognitive theory may be more appropriate. (Robbins, 2005) Edwin Locke believed that the objective of working towards a goal is a key foundation in employee motivation. Locke introduced the Ã¢â¬Å"Goal-SettingÃ¢â¬ theory using the concept that setting goals offers an employee structure. Goals establish was needs to be done, and from this the individual understands how much effort is required to complete the task. As the goal becomes more challenging the effort required increases. Understanding this basic concept supports the theory that goals are valuable to the company in the respect that challenging goals leads to increased employee performance. Locke further suggests that employee involvement in goal setting increases the commitment and drive to obtain the goal. Taking a slightly different approach, the Ã¢â¬Å"ReinforcementÃ¢â¬ theory looks at the relationship between behavior and the consequences that arise from specific behaviors. The theory implies that individual behavior can be modified using different techniques such as positive reinforcement, avoidance, extinction, or punishment. Ã¢â¬Å"Reinforcement theory ignores the state of the individual and concentrates solely on what happens to a person when he or she takes some actionÃ¢â¬ . (Robbins, 2005) This theory is based on the idea that is the physical, environmental stimuli that individuals are exposed to affects oneÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior, their motivation does not come from within (emotions, feelings, desires, etc. The idea is to respond or do not respond to certain types of behavior. An example of reinforcement is when a frustrated child is throwing a temper tantrum, one of two reinforcement approaches can be used: Avoidance; the parent ignores the behavior in an attempt to show the tantrum will not be acknowledged and the tantrum will end. Or, punishment such as placing the child in time will reinforce that the type of behavior is unacceptable and will no t be tolerated. The theory is that the negative consequence of being in time out will deter similar behavior. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s perception can play a large role in their job performance. The Equity theory states that employees compare their job process, the tasks required and their performance with other employees and react accordingly. Based on the comparison the employee may feel as though others are treated better, (increased pay, better working conditions, more/less hours) and tend to act accordingly. Employees will also compare their output in relation to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s input (reward) to determine if the input is equal to their effort. When there is a negative perception, or it felt that there is an inequality an individual may decide to decrease the amount of effort they put forward, look for work elsewhere, reduce the quality of their work or attempt to persuade co-workers perceptions. On the other side of the theory when employees perceive that they are being treated equitably or fairly they are more apt to be happy or satisfied resulting in increased participation/productivity. Given a thorough review of the different theories that have been developed, studied and documented there is not a quick, easy, or one size fits all answer to what motivates employees. Most often the typical response to this question is Ã¢â¬Å"moneyÃ¢â¬ . But surprisingly enough when employees are surveyed money is not the number one answer. (Robbins, 2005) Kenneth Kovach Ph. D. , discusses employee survey results in Ã¢â¬Å"Employee Motivation: Addressing a Crucial Factor in Your OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s PerformanceÃ¢â¬ . Ranking high on the scale is Ã¢â¬Å"full appreciation of work doneÃ¢â¬ . (Kovach, 1995) Kovach compared results from an employee survey conducted in 1946 and in 1995, employees ranked Ã¢â¬Å"full appreciation of work doneÃ¢â¬ number 1 and number 2 respectively. Obviously the change in times and work environment played a part in the slight change over the years. KovachÃ¢â¬â¢s point is that based upon employee surveys money is not a hot topic, what seem to be on the minds of employees is interesting work, appreciation of work and the feeling of being in on things or involved. One approach to satisfy these desires is the use of recognition. Recognition, what is it? WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s dictionary defines Ã¢â¬Å"recognitionÃ¢â¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"to recognizeÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"to knowÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"to admit the valueÃ¢â¬ . To use this in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organizations recognition is about Ã¢â¬Å"noticing and honoringÃ¢â¬ oneÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Hansen, Smith, & Hansen, 2002) Employee recognition is the communication used to identify the positive performance or outcomes conducted for the organization. How do we correlate the use and effect of recognition with the different motivational theories? Hansen discusses MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of Ã¢â¬Å"expressive modeÃ¢â¬ theorizing that people are propelled by growth motivation rather than by deficiency motivation (lack of faith in human potential) Employees are not dependant on the extrinsic satisfaction, but rather dependant on their own personalities and hidden resources for their continued growth and development. Hansen, 2002) Simply put, individuals are motivated by acknowledgment of progress, growth and development, as well as performance. Similarly, HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s two-factor theory distinguishes between hygiene and motivator motivation factors. Hygiene factors correlate to job dissatisfaction, while motivator factors align with job satisfaction. Herzberg believed that job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction were not opposite each other, meaning that the lack of one did not result in the other. Ã¢â¬Å"Job dissatisfaction do es not mean that there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬Å"anyÃ¢â¬ job satisfaction. Hygiene factors (rewards) can be observed when an employee is asked to complete a project with a promise of position advancement, versus recognition for achievement as a motivator factor that is basic to the job. Ultimately, the use of rewards corresponds to the use of Ã¢â¬Å"hygiene factorsÃ¢â¬ just as the use of recognition signifies the use of Ã¢â¬Å"motivatorÃ¢â¬ factors. (Hansen, 2002) Using the mind set that Ã¢â¬Å"we want employees to perform well, and, given the right environment, and incentives, employees also want to perform wellÃ¢â¬ . Bobic & Davis, 2003) Reflecting on McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory Y, the managerial approach assumes first that people prefer to work and strive to perform, thus delegating responsibility to the employee allowing the worker to be creative, to have the opportunity to identify areas of concerns and find solutions. When this is accomplished with success, the manager recognizes the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to perform. The result is employee recognition resulting in increased responsibility and accountability. McGregor supported MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory that all humans had the potential to be creative, stating that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ elf actualized creativity to be innovativeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Bobic &Davis) Management has the ability to Ã¢â¬Å"motivateÃ¢â¬ an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit of self esteem, and self actualization through recognizing their ability to assume responsibility. Recognition of creativity and innovation will encourage the commitment and initiative the employee brings to company. Ã¢â¬Å"By strengthening and enhancing behaviors that are a source of differentiation and uniqueness, recognition serves a strategic function. (Hansen, 2002) Motivational theories differ in the way the concept of motivation is defined and controlled. Each theory has it basis, whether it is a Ã¢â¬Å"needsÃ¢â¬ based concept, or a Ã¢â¬Å"behavioralÃ¢â¬ concept. Just as humans are genuinely different, so are the theories. We can make general assumptions in regards to human character, trait, desires, and reactions but in the end what is definite is situational. There are many factors such as cultural background, environment, economics, and a personÃ¢â¬â¢s upbringing that potentially has an effect on what will motivate an individual. Reviewing the basic concept behind the theory of motivation and recognition you can identify some simple correlations. The reinforcement theory is not just about administering negative consequences. There are several different types of Ã¢â¬Å"behavioralÃ¢â¬ based programs available to address different concepts. For example a behavioral based safety program is built on the concept of recognizing safe behavior. Instead of focusing on the negative actions or unsafe attitudes of employees the program is established to recognize and reward safe behavior and encourage employee participation in identifying and correcting unsafe conditions. In the same manner, the reinforcement theory can enhance employee motivation towards work performance if a positive approach is used. Pointing out the negative performance ratings or avoiding a problem employee results in de-motivating the employee. Similarly, avoiding a problem employee gives the perception that the manager or company doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care and fosters thinking of Ã¢â¬Å"why should IÃ¢â¬ ? The last concept or theory to consider is the Equity theory. The basis for this theory is that employees expect a fair return for what they contribute to their job. This Ã¢â¬Å"fair returnÃ¢â¬ is often evaluated based on what the return is for their effort. These individuals compare the input (reward/pay) by the company to the output (their effort) to determine if the reward warrants the effort put forth. Using the same concept employs also compare their input/outputs with their coworker to determine equality. If they feel that their coworker was given more for the same amount of work or less the employee will perceive this as unjust practices. Conclusion Motivation is Ã¢â¬Å"the processes that account for an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort in attaining a goalÃ¢â¬ . Robbins, pg. 170) Identifying what drives and contributes to employee motivation has been a topic for numerous researches, psychologists, and organizations alike over the last fifty to sixty years. During these years many motivational theories were developed to explain what motivates individuals. Theories based on Ã¢â¬Å"needsÃ¢â¬ principal were developed by researchers/psychologist such as Maslow, Herzberg, & McGregor. Ã¢â¬Å"Maslow professed that the specific needs of people that must be met in order for them to be motivated, thus improving productivityÃ¢â¬ . Herra, 2002) Additionally motivational theories were developed based on the concept of equity or reinforcement. The Ã¢â¬Å"EquityÃ¢â¬ theory represent the idea that equity is a perception of justice/equality based on what the employee puts out and receives in return. A comparison is made in regards as to performance/effort and what reward/recognition is received to determine if equality exist. Tasked with understanding what motivates employees organizations have spent a great amount of time, energy and resources identifying how to keep employees motivated under various, ever changing conditions. When asked what is of key importance employees respond with Ã¢â¬Å"recognitionÃ¢â¬ (Robbins, 2005) Recognition of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishments, performance and/or dedication to the organization results in increased productivity, continued support of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals, and positive employee attitude. Based on the motivational theories established, recognition, while not the only source of motivation seems to an easy, simplistic solution to improve employee motivation. Employee recognition serves two distinct purposes: enhance employee motivation as well as bond together other motivators presently used for business organizations. An employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s wage is payment for doing a job, benefits are designed to preserve an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s well being, and rewards are used to compensate for completion of a specific task or organizational goal. Recognition pulls the three aspects together as a means for organizations to develop and maintain a strong employee workforce.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Language And Culture Of Anishinaabe People - Essay Example Children learn their language, governance, the judicial system, culture, religion, and citizenship. This culture was overshadowed by Christianity and modernization, but the remaining descendants teach their children about their ancestors in order to ensure the continuity of their culture. It is difficult to maintain ethnic identity without the existence of language. The Anishinaabe descendants struggle to maintain continuity of their language by teaching their children. The learning process begins by explaining the meaning of the verbs in the seven teachings (Apple, 2008). The seven pronouns are set in the teachings called the seven grandfathers. These are Nbwaakaawin (wisdom), ZaagiÃ¢â¬â¢idiwin (love), Minaadendamowin (respect), AakwaÃ¢â¬â¢odeÃ¢â¬â¢ewin (bravery), Debwewin (truth), Dibaadendiziwin (humility) and Gwekwaadiziwin (Honesty). These are part of the original words of the ancestors that form the roots of the language. Understanding language helps to understand the cultural practices, institutions, and social festivities observed by the Anishinaabe. The elderly in the communities act as reference points for teachers and learners of the language. Their dialect and understanding of the language have not been overly diluted by the English language, as is t he case among the young people (Eigenbrod, LaRocque and DePasquale, 2010). The Ojibway language, part of the Algonquian language group, is the most frequently spoken Aboriginal language besides Cree and Inuit languages. It is usually expressed in syllabics or the Roman orthography. The syllabics were invented in 1840 by James Evans, a missionary working in HudsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Bay. Some Anishinaabe people claim that he did not invent the symbols, but he incorporated them into the writing system.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Considered the Mummys Curse, a series of unexplainable, unfortunate, or tragic events that happened to the people who were present at the opening of Tutankhamens tomb - Essay Example The mystery started with the death of the financer of the excavation, Lord Carnarvon, who died a year later as a result of a mosquito bite and his death was followed by many others who were involved with the excavation. The two theories that best explain the mystery are the theory of fungus and the theory that the curse never existed in the first place. Several notable experts in the field such as Dr. Ezzeddin Taha (Biologist), Gotthard Kramer (microbiologist), Dr. Nicola Di Paolo (Physician), etc have identified fungus in the tombs that are dangerous to human beings. On the other hand, medicine scholar Mark Nelson proved statistically that many stories surrounding the curse are not factual and more people survived the curse than those who died which goes on to prove that the curse did not exist in the first place (Krystek, 2012). The illness associated with the deaths of those related to tombs can be explained scientifically. Dr. Ezzeddin Taha examining those working in tombs found that they were exposed to a potentially dangerous fungus known as Aspergillus niger. Dr. Nicola Di Paolo identified another fungus known as Aspergillus ochraceus in many archaeological sites. Gotthard Kramer in 1999 on analysing 40 mummies found the presence of mold spores that are potentially dangerous (Krystek, 2012). It is shown that these dangerous funguses could have survived for 1000Ã¢â¬â¢s of years in the tombs and infecting those coming in contact with it (Abel, 2006). There these funguses are a possible explanation for the illness and deaths associated with the mummyÃ¢â¬â¢s curse. This is the best possible explanation as it is based on science and can be proven with
Thursday, September 26, 2019
EMPLOYEE RELATIONS-Triad unions - Essay Example In addition, some unionized workers tend to view the employer in bad light, while others adopt more critical tendencies of management strategies and processes. These issues normally impede their chances of being responsible; gaining experience within the organization; and being productive in the workplace for mutual benefit. Research shows that companies with unionized employees incur up to 40% more in terms of running costs than for non-unionized organizations (Sengupta, 2008). This cost may not encompass additional expenditures arising from subsequently negotiated terms in unionized worker reimbursements or benefits. According to OLeary (2013), the running costs of unionized organizations are far greater due to the necessity of more workers to needed to handle different job designations to conform to regulatory systems requiring specialization, for instance. As Thornthwaite and Sheldon (2012) have noted, unfair labour practice cases brought about by trade unions injure the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s image and erode the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s good will. For instance, immediately a case is filed, responsible trade unions dispatch their representatives to the employer to carry out investigations. At this level, the whole workforce will be aware of the supposedly wrong practices that have taken place within their workplace or organization (Ross, 2013). Then, in the event that the case is not resolved, the union will engage the employer in long-drawn legal battles. Making arrangements for and carrying out a court process will cost the organization tens of thousands of dollars in attorneysÃ¢â¬â¢ fees, plus the lost resources of gathering the evidence. Unionization of employees disenfranchises organizations of their right to managerial control (Sengupta, 2008). This is especially true considering that unionized organizations grapple with the problem of political and legal interference from the government. Government agents will carry out excessive monitoring of
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The Holy Grail - Essay Example Nevertheless, they would say the Holy Grail was not only a mystery, secrecy, or adventure but it also required much valuable knowledge from people if they shared the same historical background. A brief discussion on the historical background of the Holy Grail however, may be of some help in understanding the thesis. In the modern day, a majority will agree that the Holy Grail is a cup or a goblet that is related to Christ. However, we should not assume that the Holy Grail is merely an object. People also have other ideas about the Holy Grail that it could be a Blood Line, figure of Christ, or even Christ himself. The Holy Grail is a symbol of blood from Christ and that it was also the cup used while they were drinking wine. In addition, it was also used to gather the blood of Christ while he was hung on the cross. Some people believe that this cup has lots of miraculous powers.. For instance, it has the privilege to communicate with God, which, some believed, might bring them treatme nt, recycling, even immortality. There is also testimony to the assumption that the Holy Grail is the Blood Line of Christ. The word Holy Grail has changed a couple of times and Sangreal is just one of the words which referred to Christs cup before the advent of the word Holy Grail. The word Sangreal connotes a word San Greal that also suggests the meaning of Blood Line of Christ. The evidence of this theory is comes from the belief of some people that a baby was actually born to Christ and Mary Magdalene. Some theorists proclaim that this royal bloodline still remains today. The theory that we can finally come to about the Holy Grail is that the Holy Grail is just a cup, which simply symbolizes Christ. This is what the Catholics believe. In Catholicism, it is believed that Christ is sanctity, therefore, he did not marry Mary Magdalene nor did he have any children or any sort of bloodline.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Individualism rise in Australia - Essay Example A traditional society is one in which the culture is largely handed on from one generation to the next. In a post-traditional society, however, culture is developed reflexively by individuals drawing on a range of resources. We have seen this change in a great variety of forms. It is evident in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s eating habits. Eating habits had been handed down from one generation to the next. They changed a little. Cultures are always in flux, and there is a certain open-weave within them which means that individuals make some choices within a limited range. However, within the last 30 years, eating habits have changed greatly in the Western world. Individuals have begun drawing on cuisines from around the globe. They have absorbed into their regular eating habits Chinese and Indian food, Lebanese and Italian food, Greek and Thai dishes, and food from many other cuisines (Kapferer, 1996). The patterns of relationships has also changed although perhaps not so consciously drawing on different cultures. For centuries, the patterns of marriage and the general expectations that the women would prepare food and look after the children and the home while the men would conduct the business and bring home the finance has been the dominant hope, if not always the reality. In poor families, women have long had to help make financial ends meet (Kapferer, 1996). However, within the last 30 years, the patterns of relationship have been blown wide open. Marriage cannot be assumed at all. Relationships take a great variety of forms, some more and some less permanent. Some involve ceremonies of commitment, while others do not. Most still involve a couple, but not necessarily one male and one female. Some couples live in one house, while others chose to get together from time to time (Kapferer, 1996). The roles within those relationships have also been blown wide open. There can be no assumptions about who will get the meal,
Monday, September 23, 2019
WK 1 PS240 Psychological Research Methods Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words
WK 1 PS240 Psychological Methods - Research Paper Example The correlation would reveal if people who lived together before marriage got divorced, if they did not live together before marriage and got divorced, or if no relationship exists between the two separate variables. Correlations do not suggest that one variable causes or influences the other variable, but that there are characteristics in common between the two individual variables. The experimental procedure of psychological investigation requires the researcher to influence one variable to dictate if variations in one variable causes changes to occur in another variable; experiments are undergone to Ã¢â¬Å"determine if there is a causal relationship between two or more variables (Hayes, 2007).Ã¢â¬ Part of the experimental procedure is to tweak certain variables to aim at a certain result, or else to see if that certain result is even capable of being reached. One of the greatest benefits of experimentation in psychology is that experimenters are able to have a reasonable amount of control over the variables. An example of when a researcher would rely on experimentation would be if they wanted to determine how a certain group of people or individuals naturally act in any given environment. The researcher could tweak the variables of the experiment by changing the environment that their subjects would find themselves in. The researchers would not be able to personally alter or even predict the behavior of their subjects, but by adding distractions or other variables to the environment, they can reach a specific conclusion of their
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Financial Performance of Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank in UAE - Case Study Example Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank acquired RBSÃ¢â¬â¢ UAE retail, wealth management and SME banking business. Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank is currently the third largest bank in the UAE in terms of operations and second largest in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi in terms of total assets. The bank has a substantial customer base and holds around 12% market share by loans and 10% market share by deposits. The bank currently has approximately 500,000 retail customers and 33,000 wholesale customers in the UAE. Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank has divided its operations into four main domains as follows. Abu Dhabi, the second largest city of UAE, is one of the emerging economies of the world. During the financial year 2009, amid the global economic crisis, the growth trend of Abu Dhabi took a downward plunge when the real GDP growth remained only 0.2% and its GDP per capita was 90,538 USD, which was still considered among the highest at the global level. With the implementation of prudent policies, the government of UAE has now able to restore its previous economic prosperity and it is portraying inclining trend once again. The banking sector in UAE can be regarded as the biggest beneficiary of the economic growth. This is due to the fact that the prevailing interest rate in the UAE economy is lower as compared to the other countries depicting similar economic trends. Central Bank of UAE is the regulatory authority which issues guidelines and pronouncement regulating the functioning of these banks. As of March 31, 2011, UAE economy had 23 local banks with 736 branches and 28 licensed foreign banks with 83 branches. The following graphical representation presents the growth in the banking sector in UAE over the years [presentation] Technical Analysis The share price of Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank remained fluctuated over the past few years. If we consider the financial year 2006, the share price of the bank depicts a rising trend. In the beginning of the financial year 2006, the share price of the bank was crossing 5.66, but by the end of the financial year 2006, the share price took a downward plunge and the December closing of the financial year recorded a share price of 4.16. Despite the declining trend in the previous year, Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank was able to restore its previous market capitalization and by the end of the financial year 2007, the share price represents an increase of 19%. Financial year 2008 and 2009 are
Saturday, September 21, 2019
The Mystery of Edgar Allan Poes Works Essay Thesis Statement: Edgar Allan Poe is considered to be one of the greatest and most brilliant American writers in history. Many people considered him the first master of the short story form, and the father of the mysterious and the modern detective stories. Outline: I. An Introduction to Poe life and works. A. Due to Poes great works, many writers were influenced by these works. II. The early life of Poe and how it affected his life. A. His parents died so Allan raised him up. B. Allan ill-treated him and this affected his life and works afterwards. C. Poes education in England enriched his knowledge. D. Poe joined the University of Virginian and the army afterwards. III. What affected the works of Poe. A. Learning a lot of language enabled Poe from knowing different nations cultures and literature. B. Poe was good at the field of Art as well. C. Poe read to famous philosophers. IV. Analysis of the stories and poems of Poe. A. Poe was a talented writer. B. He excelled in poetry and in fiction and detective stories. V. Poe excelled in the field of detective stories, as he was the inventor of the short detective story. A. Many famous writers based their characters on Poes stories. B. The Murders in The Rue Morgue an example to show the excellence of Poe in the filed of Short story. C. Another detective story: The Purloined Letter. VI. The life of this great writer ended in New York after amusing the readers by his great works. ECLT 113 Mohamed Abdel Raouf Paper #2: Individual research projects 900-00-1018 The Mystery of Edgar Allan Poes Works Edgar Allan Poe is considered to be one of the greatest and most brilliant American writers in history. Many people considered him the father of the mysterious modern detective story, and the master of the short story form. The Works of this famous writer were remarkable to their flawless literary construction and for their haunting themes (The Columbia Encyclopedia). Jeffrey Meyers states that this great writer was considered to be the first American Writer whose personal reputation influenced the reception of his work. He was also the only nineteenth century American writer whose poems and novels were valued more highly in Europe than in his homeland. However, In spite of all his great works, it was argued that the creator of these hallucinating murders and that horror atmosphere must himself be evil, to have so evil imagination (258). Edgar Allan Poes life is considered to be a story of misery and oddness. Edgar Allan Poe, the greatest writer that was ever born in the American history, was born in Boston on January 19, 1809. His parents whom were touring actors, both died in Poes early childhood, and the little boy Edgar Allan Poe was raised by a rich man whom was called John Allan (Funk Wagnalls Encyclopedia). Edgar had a brother whom was rover and a sister that have seemed to be mentally retarded (Rieselbach 1), that is probably the reason why it was said afterwards that all the horrifying works of Poe were a result of an unstable mind. John Allan was a successful businessman from Richmond, whom was working in the merchandise. Nevertheless, he ill-treated Edgar and confused the poor Edgar by alternately spoiling and scolding him. Edgar was taken to England to attend private schools there. Edgar was affected by the travels that the Allans made in England. Many Poes weird stories reflect his own experience like Why the Little Frenchman took place in towns where he had lived and A Tale of The Ragged Mountains took place in Charlottesville (Meyers 8+). Furthermore, his poems reflected his miserable life with the Allans and his rift with them (Poe and Richmond). This proves that Poe have been taking his ideas and thoughts for his novels and poems from his own miserable life, that may be the cause of his invention of those horrible and horrifying prospects in his short stories and novels. After staying in England more than thirteen years, Edgar was more sophisticated and cosmopolitan, and far better educated than his mates in Richmond (Meyers 14). The education of Edgar in England had a great effect on him as this education widened his horizon of writing, as he read in his childhood many books and novels to great writers. Poe returned to the United States and entered the University of Virginia. Allan gave him too little money to pay for his classes (Rieselbach 1). Nevertheless, he showed remarkable scholastic ability in classical and romance languages but was forced to leave the university after only eight months because he made a fight with Allan over his gambling debts (The Columbia Encyclopedia). After leaving the University of Virginia, he worked as a clerk for a while at a warehouse. Afterwards he joined the army, because the army would alleviate his poverty, offer security and provide the basic necessities of the life (Meyer 32). What has the great affection in his lifetime is that he learned foreign languages as Latin, French, German, Spanish and Italian (Campbell 6+). He studied Latin when he was nine years old. He excelled in reading and writing Latin sharply. It is the same with his knowledge of French. He used to read works in French in the university of Virginia. Also his knowledge of German, Spanish and Italian made him talented in understanding the works of many of these countries writers, which made him talented in reading and writing stories and poems (Campbell 7+). Moreover, he was good at the field of fine arts as well. Poe knew music, painting, sculpture, theatre and dancing. He had been taking lessons in dancing and he sang well (Campbell 11). He was fond of the piano and of musical instruments in general. Poe early developed an interest in philosophy. Because he knew the German language, he was attracted to the philosophical thinking of the German philosophers. He knew about Kant, Hegel and Fichte (Campbell 12+). He drew ideas for his stories and poems from all the knowledge he had from the German philosophy. He also read to English philosophers as Bentham and Mill (Campbell 13). The works of Poe shows that Poe was a talented writer and a gifted poet. As an example to his great success is that his first volume of poetry Tamerlane and Other Poems, which he have written when he was eighteen years old, is such a rare book now that a single copy worth two hundred thousand dollars (Wilson 1). Daniel Hoffman states that the writings of Poe demonstrates Poes critical mind, his analysis of the structure and texture of poetry, the need for all details of diction and form to contribute to single effect (1). Poe was considered to have influence on the literature of twenty cultures and on fifteen major writers around the world (Hoffman 1). Poes influence on European and American art has been extraordinarily wide. Poe had a short life and a few unfinished works; however, he possessed great originality and imagination. His poems influenced the French symbolists and English writers (Meyers 280). Thus, he is considered to be one of the greatest writers in the whole literatur e history. Poe wrote in many fields and in many ways and styles. He excelled at poetry and wrote great poems as The Raven. In addition to poetry, Edgar Allan Poe wrote many kinds of stories. However, Poe excelled at writing detective stories. His superiority at detective stories may be for the reason that he was fond of puzzles and mental games, and both his fiction and nonfiction often included such mental exercises (Unrue 3). He published tales of detection, the first being The Murders in The Rue Morgue and he introduced his famous character Auguste Dupin. These kinds of stories incorporate many of the themes and techniques Poe was developing all over his life (Unrue 3). This famous American writer spent a miserable living while inventing the modern detective story and science fiction as well. He perfected the horror tale and wrote unforgettable stories, as his works continues to be a significant presence in world literature. Poe is considered the father of the modern detective story, as he was the first writer to put pen to paper and write his detective stories, and it is possibly that Poe was the inventor of the detective stories as Umberto Eco said that Edgar Allan Poe is considered by most detective fiction historians to be the founding father of the detective story, and his Murders in The Rue Morgue the worlds first detective story (179). His mind brought to reality the greatest stories in detection as The Murders in The Rue Morgue, The Purloined Letter, The Gold Bug and The Mystery of Marie Roget (Funk Wagnalls Encyclopedia). Not only did he write stories, but also he influenced by his stories the most brilliant writers in the field of detective story. Poe influence on Conan Doyle, the great writer that invented the character of Sherlock Holmes, cannot be disregarded. However, its obvious that Conan Doyle used the stories of Edgar Allan Poe as a guide in the begging of his writing because the character Sherlock Holmes have some similarities from Dupin, the character of Edgar Allan Poe. Moreover, Poe influenced Swinburne, the English poet, Dostoyevsky, the Russian novelist, and the French symbolists (The Columbia Encyclopedia). Many of Poes tales have been distinguished by the authors unique bizarre inventiveness in addition to his superb plot construction (Funk Wagnalls Encyclopedia). The Murders in The Rue Morgue is an excellent example of the detective story, which Poe had written. Stuart and Susan Levine stated in their book The Short Fiction of Edgar Allan Poe that in this tale, Dupin, Poes hero in his detective stories, is superior to the perfect of Police in that he logical. Dupin actually uses what looks like artistic inspiration to solve the problems posed by crime and conspiracy. If the private hideout of Dupin and the narrator seems to be familiar, it is because subsequent writers have made it so. The idea of the heros hidden residence has passed into popular culture. Poe invented a great deal of the claptrap and many of the conventions of the modern detective stories. As Conan Doyle said: Sherlock Holmes owed to much to Dupin, as did the detective heroes of other writers(153). In this story, Dupin and the narrator first learn from an evening newspaper that Madame LEspanaye and her daughter Camille were murdered. Newspaper accounts the next day carry depositions by links of the victims and the people in the vicinity where the crime took place; these conflicting accounts and the absence of evidence lead the narrator and the police to consider the crime insolvable. Dupin, however, places an advertisement in the newspaper after having inspected the house where the woman and her daughter have been murdered. When a sailor in search of a missing orangutan, which has killed the victims, responds to the newspaper advertisement, Dupin finds the solution to this murder, and after wards he explained the clues that led him to this solution. Dupins analytic method of solving the crime has made the tale a classic in the detective mystery genre. As the first detection in fiction, Dupin was the sample that Conan Doyles based on it his famous detective Sherlock Holmes (The Murders In The Rue Morgue 1). Another Example of Poes detective story is The Purloined Letter. This tale is also one of Poes vengeance stories; Dupin has scores personal and political to settle. The tone of the closing paragraphs of the tale is bitter and the final allusion literally bloodthirsty (Stuart and Suzan Levine 154). As he did in the other tales of Poe: The Mystery of Marie Roget and The Murders in The Rue Morgue, Dupin beat the police in solving these seemingly insoluble crimes. However, unlike the other tales, which involve murders of women, The Purloined Letter presents only petty thievery and trickery of the crime. The Prefect of the Parisian Police actually knows the thief, but the letter had to be found in order to protect the honor of a lady being blackmailed. The police department searches for the letter, but it appears that no one could found it. So the Prefect asks Dupin for help. And as usual, Dupin find the clue to this thievery and get the letter. Afterwards Dupin explains what has been the reason that led him to that solution (The Purloined Letter 1). These evidence and examples shows that Edgar Allan Poe was the inventor of the detective short story and his main character, Dupin, was the prototype that all the subsequently writers used him and invented their characters upon as Sherlock Holmes. And this success was a product of his hard work and also because of his talents. Edgar Allan died on Sunday, October 7, 1849 at the age of fourty. Poes spent his last days in a New York hospital, after taking an alcoholic overdose, became unconscious, suffered delirium tremens, fell into a coma and died four days later. Poes life was not very long, however during this short lifetime, he enriched the American Culture and all the world culture with many stories and poems that are still discussed and criticized by people all around the world. Poe (Meyers 255). Works Cited Campbell, Killis. The Mind of Poe and Other Studies. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 1933. This book introduces to the reader seven papers that were published and talking about Poe. These papers are: Contemporary Opinion of Pe, The Poe-Griswold Controversy, The Poe Canaon, The Backgrounds of Poe, Self-Revelation in Poes Poems and Tales, The Origins of Poe and The Mind of Poe. Eco, Umberto, and Thomas A. Sebeok, eds. The Sign of Three. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983. This book discusses the detective stories and that Dupin (Edgar Allan Poes detective character), Sherlock Holmes and Peirce were the greatest character invented by writers in the whole history. The book also discusses how Conan Doyle, before writing Holmes stories, used the stories of Edgar Allan Poe as a guide to him and he was very impressed by Dupin. Edgar Allan Poe Museum. Nov. 2000. Clever Net. 1 May 2001. http://www.poemuseum.org The Museum of Edgar Allan Poe on the Internet. It contains all the works of Edgar Allan Poe and his biographical information. Hoffman, Danile. Poe As Critic, Poe Abroad. Sewanee Review. 108.2 (2000) : 11 pars. 2 May 2001. Academic Search Elite An article that includes the review of books of Edgar Allan Poe and his literary theory and criticisms. It also includes Poes influence on the non American writers as Conan Doyle and H.G. Wells. Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. New York. Charles Scribners Sons., 1992. The complete biographical information about Poe. This book includes extendedly the life of Poe and the circumstances of his life and death. Poe, Edgar Allan. Funk Wagnalls Encyclopedia. Versaware. 2 May 2001 http://www.funkandwagnalls.com An article of the biography of Poe. Poe, Edagr Allan. The Columbia Encyclopedia. Six Edition. 2001. Columbia University Press. 2 May 2001. http://www.bartlebay.com Some biographical information about Edgar Allan Poe. Rieselbach, Erik. Poe, Edagr Allan Bibliography. American Spectator. 26.3 (1993) : 58 pars. 2 May 2001. Academic Search Elite An article that discuss the life of Poe and what reasons lead him to write his novels and poems. The article also include the evidence of the influence of Poe on other writers. Sturat, and Susan Levine. The Short Fiction of Edgar Allan Poe. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc., 1976. The book introduces the fiction and detective stories that Edgar Allan Poe wrote in his life. It also gives short analysis and criticism to those stories and the circumstances of this tale. The Murders In The Rue Morgue. Academic Search Elite. Magill Book Reviews. 5 May 2001 Academic Search Elite The complete analysis of the story The Murders in the Rue Morgue that wrote by Edgar as an example of short detective story. The Purloined Letter. Academic Search Elite. Magill Book Reviews. 5 May 2001 Academic Search Elite The complete analysis of The Purloined Letter which was written by Poe as another good example for the short detective stories wrote by Poe. Unrue, Darlene Harbour. Edgar Allan Poe: The Romantic as Classicist. International Jouranl of The Classical Tradition. 1.4 (1995) : 112 pars. 2 May 2001. Academic Search Elite This article reveals that Edgar Allan Poe measured romantic stance determinedly against the objectivity and rationality of the classical. Distinction on the use of romantic materials and themes between Poe and gothic writers. Wilson, James Southall. A Summary of Facts Known about Edgar Allan Poe. Edgar Allan Poe Museum. 5 May 2001. http://www.poemuseum.org
Friday, September 20, 2019
Aspect of acting The Technical Aspect of Acting Acting was developed in ancient Greek Theatre. The Greeks were the ones who introduced theatre and bought out an individuals talent known as acting. However in those days the technology had not advanced and there werent any films, the only source of entertainment the people had was through theatre. Theatre acting and acting in films differ vastly from each other. According to actress Kim Stanley Ã¢â¬Å" No matter what you do in film, it is, after all, bits and pieces for the director, and thats marvelous for the director but it doesnt allow the actor to learn to mold a part. In films, its the director who is the artist. An actor has much more chance to create on stage.Ã¢â¬ (Giannetti, 2008) Film acting is a basic tool of the director to make his film successful. Indeed it requires talent and learning for the individual in the field of acting. He needs to understand the role and connect himself emotionally to the character and then enact it for the audience in a way that it may see m real. A film actor gets several chances for displaying the emotions in front of the camera and a director may take several takes till the time the right emotions are bought out to his satisfaction. Unfortunately this is not the case for stage actors; they do not get several chances to bring out the reality in their acting, they only go on stage once and thats it, it is then in their hands to grab the audiences attention and do their best. Film has different categories of actors; extras, nonprofessional performers, trained professionals and the stars. Extras are the actors who are merely used to fill the camera frame, they are the unnecessary people needed to surround the main actors or just to be a part of the set. For instance if a film shows a market scene; to make it real the director puts in several people in the frame just to show the crowd in a market place. Nonprofessional actors are those that are not really good in acting; they dont master the art but; their physical appearance and presence on screen suits the characters personality on the basis of outlook. Trained professionals is that particular category in which majority of the actors are. They are those actors who have the ability to fit into any character and play any role according to the directors will. The last kind of an actor is the star. The stars are the actors who are successful in the film industry and their talent is admired and appreciated by the audience and the critiques. They often grab the audiences attention through their acting as well as their physical appearance. In the history of cinema the first kind of motion pictures that came out were silent films that did not have many dialogues. In those times acting was much more challenging then it is today. The emotional display of character was done through the facial expressions and the movement of the actor. The actor had to work hard to make the audience cry or laugh merely through his actions and expressions. Slowly and gradually as the technology advanced, there was advancement in cinema as well. There was more dialogue added to the film and now it was a challenge to the actor to develop a style of acting which would help him convey his message through dialogue delivery alongside, with the expressions and body language. Now the actor did not only have to make sure that his facial expressions were good but; he had Ã¢â¬Å"to know what words to stress and how to stress them, how to phrase properly for different types of lines, when to pause and for how long, and how quickly or slowly a line or sp eech ought to be delivered.Ã¢â¬ (Giannetti, 2008) The talent bought out in an actor is basically the art every director has. The actor works the way his director wants him to. If the director is successful in explaining what he wants and the way he wants it, and the actor is a master in his profession, the film ends up being a hit. The director also brings out the acting in a scene through the kinds of camera shots he takes. If he wants his audience to closely relate to the actor he would take a medium or a close up shot of the actor. The audience feels the intensity in the emotion the actor displays. For instance if the director is capturing an emotional scene and wants his audience to feel the sorrow the character is going through, he would want to take a close up shot; where he might zoom in from a medium shot moving his camera towards the actors eyes and showing the drop of tear that falls from his eye. The way the camera zooms towards the actor that is the time when the dire ctor grabs the audiences attention and they feel the intensity of emotion that the director is trying to bring out and many a times the actor is so good and the directors shot is so perfect that the whole scene seems real and makes the audience cry as well. There are several different techniques that make a film successful and all of them are very closely related to each other. Acting is closely related to the technique of mise en sense and editing. Mise en scene is everything shown within the screen frame; such as, the entire background, the set, the objects and the actors in a particular scene. It is the technique where the director places everything in the screen frame of his shot. Mise en sense would be incomplete without acting and acting would be incomplete without the technique of mise en sense. The technique of acting can be brought out with a perfect frame the director would set up. If the frame is empty or in other words there isnt any frame then the actor alone would not be able to do well on his own. Acting and editing are also very closely connected. A director takes several shots of an actor and then in the end its the editing that puts it altogether. The connection of shots appropriately is all in the hands of the editor. If edited correctly the acting seems perfect, an editor may edit a single shot in several different ways and chooses one p articular shot that brings out the best acting that the actor has shown. Director Akira Kurosawas Rashomon was one of the foreign films which proved brilliance in the acting technique. The first impression that the viewer forms in this film is confusion because there are different stories going on at the same time or rather one story with the same characters being told by different people with different angles. The major star cast of the film includes; Toshiro Mifune (the bandit), Masayuki Mori (the husband) and Machiko Kyo (the wife).C:UsersAfifaDesktopR1.bmp The film revolves around a crime committed by Mifune; he raped the wife and murdered the husband. The main plot of the film is how this story is interpreted and told to the jury from different point of views and how each character gives a different outlook to the entire situation. The actors have done quite an amazing job with their acting, according to a review Ã¢â¬Å"Direction is excellent. Shot completely outdoors, the camerawork is flawless. Toshiro Mifune gives a sterling performance as the ver min-ridden bandit. Machiko Kyo supplies a role of dramatic intensity as the wife. Masayuki Mori lends an impassive, glowering presence to the part of the husband.Ã¢â¬ (Rashomon Review) The actors of the film are certainly talented actors. As said earlier that the film has one basic story which is told from different point of views through different characters. Whenever a character tells the story, it includes the main actors of the film; the bandit, the husband and the wife. However the role each one plays in the different stories told by the witnesses and the victims changes the personality of the character completely. Each individual tells a story in the way he or she wishes. We see the story through the way the director wants us to. It certainly is a very challenging task to bring out the actors talent, where the character changes time and again. There is one story in the film where the director wants his audience to feel sympathetic towards the wife. Kurosawa very smartly has been successful in changing the audience view. There is a scene in one of the stories where the wife is being attacked by the bandit and she denies to him and tries to save her life. In that scene we see Machiko Kyo extremely hurt and asking for help and pleads the bandit to release her husband and let go off them. In that scene the director successfully portrays that the wife is weak and in pain and makes the audience feel very sympathetic towards her. The same story when told by another eye witness proves the wife to be very smart and cunning. In that scene the wife is flirting around with the bandit and asking him to mar ry her and kill her husband. In that scene the viewers dont really like the wifes character and get a bad impression about her character. She proves to be a woman who is selfish; doesnt care whether her husband lives or dies as long as she survives and is in safe hands. C:UsersAfifaDesktopR2.bmp Two different stories being told in the same film by two different people but the story has the same characters with different characteristics. Each time the story has been told the characteristics of the actor changes, in one scene he is shown weak and in the other scene very sharp and cunning. Kurosawa has been successful in bringing out the acting skills of his actors in this film, in the scenes where he wants us to feel sympathetic, he has taken long shots, in which we see the wife being mistreated by the bandit and the husband tied up in the other corner. The frame covers all three characters in the story. However in places where he portrays the wife to be very cunning, he takes medium to medium close up shots and captures the sharpness in the facial expressions of the wife, and shows her flirting with the bandit and motivating him to kill her husband. In that scene the focus is on the bandit and the wife and lesser on the husband. Its the camera shots that the director takes an d the way he shoots the scene which brings out the acting skills of the actors in a perfect manner. There are several scenes in the film that are magnificent in their structure and in the setting as well, which as a result brings out the simplest scene acted in the most simplest manner to look extraordinary. The director wants the bandit to look as wild as possible, even when he is seducing the wife is one of the scenes and expressing his liking for her, there is a constant vicious look on his face. He is perfect in presenting the role of a wild bandit roaming around in the woods; just the sight of the bandit would scare its viewersC:UsersAfifaDesktopR3.bmp. Mifunes performance as the bandit was greatly admired by the film critiques; he was successful in bringing out the intense vulgarity in his acting that ideally represented evil. Mifunes acting style has been applauded by critiques from Japan itself and even the American Cinema (Smith). The American critiques drew a conclusion that his acting was so wild and closely related to an animal from the wild. Kurosawa was looking for the animal in that character and he even told Mifune to connect himself to the lion and show the ferociousness of a lion. No doubts the actor was a perfect choice and representation of the bandit. For the acting to have a stronger impact on the audience and make them feel the character the director takes his medium close ups quite often so that the anger and frustration is bought out through the actors eyes and facial expression. Kurosawas Rashomon is a foreign film liked by many critiques all over the world; for its acting techniques and camera techniques were over powering. Many reviews and critique state that the film was one of its kind and the actors had done a marvelous job since it was very challenging to show different characteristics at one time in the same film. References: Giannetti, L. (2008). Understanding Movies. New Jersey : Pearson Prentice Hall. Japanese Film Greats . (n.d.). Retrieved decemebr 11, 2009, from http://asian-films.suite101.com/article.cfm/japanese_film_greats_akira_kurosawas_rashomon kleph.com Rashomon . (n.d.). Retrieved december 11, 2009, from http://www.kleph.com/blog.php?b=1e=1175pg=Rashomon Rashomon Review. (n.d.). Retrieved december 11, 2009, from http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117794327.html?categoryid=31cs=1 Smith, G. M. (n.d.). Greg Smith, Greg M Smith: Critical Reception of Rashomon in the West. Retrieved decemeber 11, 2009, from http://www2.gsu.edu/~jougms/Rashomon.htm#Schemata
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Advanced Export Marketing ADVANCED EXPORT MARKETING MAJOR ASSIGNMENT There are already many federal programs that assist exporters in various ways including Progam for Export Market Development (P.E.M.D.), Canadian International Development Association (C.I.D.A.) and Canadian Commercial Corporations (C.C.C.). These programs help exporters secure and enhance access for Canadian goods and services in world markets. They also strengthen Canada's international marketing effectiveness and help promote awareness of export markets and opportunities. These exporting programs also promote Canada's economic, political, security and other interests, both bilaterally and through international institutions. They advise the government on international developments and on the international implications on the domestic policies. There is alot of help out there for exporters but new programs should be introduced and old programs should be updated. I will introduce a new program where anybody can apply for help in exporting which will be called " A FOOT AHEAD "(A.F.A.). A.F.A. will be fully examined and explained in the following report and Iwill also show some very interesting improvements to the existing government exporting program called P.E.M.D. A FOOT AHEAD (A.F.A) There are many problems facing Canadian companies in gaining export competiveness. A.F.A. wants to reduce these problems and make it much easier for the exporters to crack the foreign markets. These problems consist of: 1) Lack of market analysis 2) Lack of market strategy 3) Pricing problems - Labour - Transportation cost - Economics of scale - Outdated manufacturing facilities 4) Distance from market (serviceability aspects) 5) Lack of management initiative (no long range plans - lack of know how) 6) Subsidiary relations (affects marketing and research and development) 7) Risk takers - lack of - (companies and banks) A.F.A. knows these problems exist and wants to take care of them for the exporter who may be to confused and/or unsure of themself to become involved in foreign investment. A.F.A. consists of 7 graduates from the Sir Sanford Fleming College International Trade Program. Each of its staff are fully capable of helping any exporter in the above problems. With the quality of education learned from the profs at Fleming no solution is unatainable. For each of the above problems, people will be assigned to fully understand the exporters situation and apply there capabilities in helping them out. The first employee, we will refer to him as Das Fut, will be responsible for finding business's that look as though they are capable of creating a profit from exporting there service or good that don't already do so. So instead of companies coming to us, we will go looking for them to export. Das Fut will obtain documents (balnce sheets and company profiles) and statistics on domestic markets and if they look promissing he will then suggest back to headquarters Advanced Export Marketing :: Free Essay Writer Advanced Export Marketing ADVANCED EXPORT MARKETING MAJOR ASSIGNMENT There are already many federal programs that assist exporters in various ways including Progam for Export Market Development (P.E.M.D.), Canadian International Development Association (C.I.D.A.) and Canadian Commercial Corporations (C.C.C.). These programs help exporters secure and enhance access for Canadian goods and services in world markets. They also strengthen Canada's international marketing effectiveness and help promote awareness of export markets and opportunities. These exporting programs also promote Canada's economic, political, security and other interests, both bilaterally and through international institutions. They advise the government on international developments and on the international implications on the domestic policies. There is alot of help out there for exporters but new programs should be introduced and old programs should be updated. I will introduce a new program where anybody can apply for help in exporting which will be called " A FOOT AHEAD "(A.F.A.). A.F.A. will be fully examined and explained in the following report and Iwill also show some very interesting improvements to the existing government exporting program called P.E.M.D. A FOOT AHEAD (A.F.A) There are many problems facing Canadian companies in gaining export competiveness. A.F.A. wants to reduce these problems and make it much easier for the exporters to crack the foreign markets. These problems consist of: 1) Lack of market analysis 2) Lack of market strategy 3) Pricing problems - Labour - Transportation cost - Economics of scale - Outdated manufacturing facilities 4) Distance from market (serviceability aspects) 5) Lack of management initiative (no long range plans - lack of know how) 6) Subsidiary relations (affects marketing and research and development) 7) Risk takers - lack of - (companies and banks) A.F.A. knows these problems exist and wants to take care of them for the exporter who may be to confused and/or unsure of themself to become involved in foreign investment. A.F.A. consists of 7 graduates from the Sir Sanford Fleming College International Trade Program. Each of its staff are fully capable of helping any exporter in the above problems. With the quality of education learned from the profs at Fleming no solution is unatainable. For each of the above problems, people will be assigned to fully understand the exporters situation and apply there capabilities in helping them out. The first employee, we will refer to him as Das Fut, will be responsible for finding business's that look as though they are capable of creating a profit from exporting there service or good that don't already do so. So instead of companies coming to us, we will go looking for them to export. Das Fut will obtain documents (balnce sheets and company profiles) and statistics on domestic markets and if they look promissing he will then suggest back to headquarters
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
African-Americans and Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Huckleberry Finn Ã In the century since the publication of Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Huckleberry Finn, it has remained one of the most talked about books in American literature. This distinction seems to be due primarily to the fact that, while the book has always been popular among Americans, Americans, of all types, continue to find different ways to be offended by it. It has been described as everything from anti-southern to anti-black, and has been called everything from a piece of trash to a national treasure. Perhaps no other American book could claim such an abundance of conflicting interpretations. This essay will seek to explore and explain the history of one of the major controversies surrounding the book, and the importance that that history may have had for modern readings of the novel. Two Different Novels to Two Different Groups of Americans Ã As long as Huck Finn has existed, African-Americans have had a unique perspective on the novel. This project will argue that this unique perspective has its roots in the early interpretation of the novel by African-Americans, and that this perspective deserves recognition for finding deeper meaning in Huck Finn, long before it was accepted to do so. To begin, it is important to first distinguish between white interpretation of the novel and black interpretation of it. Although Huckleberry Finn was published long after the Civil War, racial prejudice and injustice still remained in all aspects of American life. As a result, African-Americans were largely excluded from American literary institutions like universities and publishing companies. Popular newspapers, magazines, and books were, for the mos... ...ymond W. Smock, eds., The Booker T. Washington Papers. Vol. 10: 1909-1911. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981. p349-50. San Francisco Daily Examiner [unsigned] 1885: March 9. Smith, David Lionel. Ã¢â¬Å"Black Critics and Mark Twain.Ã¢â¬ The Cambridge Companion to Mark Twain. Forrest G. Robinson, ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. p119-20. Notes: [i] One of the newspaper accounts of this scandal can be found in The Critical Response to Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Huckleberry Finn. ed. Laurie Champion (New York, Greenwood Press: 1991) 10-12. [ii] A similarly detailed account of the banning can also be found at http://etext.virginia.edu/railton/huckfinn/hfconcrd.html [iii] A database of the early illustrations of the character Jim, as well as the other characters of the book, is available at http://etext.virginia.edu/railton/huckfinn/jminpix.html Ã African-Americans and Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Huckleberry Finn Essay -- Adventure African-Americans and Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Huckleberry Finn Ã In the century since the publication of Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Huckleberry Finn, it has remained one of the most talked about books in American literature. This distinction seems to be due primarily to the fact that, while the book has always been popular among Americans, Americans, of all types, continue to find different ways to be offended by it. It has been described as everything from anti-southern to anti-black, and has been called everything from a piece of trash to a national treasure. Perhaps no other American book could claim such an abundance of conflicting interpretations. This essay will seek to explore and explain the history of one of the major controversies surrounding the book, and the importance that that history may have had for modern readings of the novel. Two Different Novels to Two Different Groups of Americans Ã As long as Huck Finn has existed, African-Americans have had a unique perspective on the novel. This project will argue that this unique perspective has its roots in the early interpretation of the novel by African-Americans, and that this perspective deserves recognition for finding deeper meaning in Huck Finn, long before it was accepted to do so. To begin, it is important to first distinguish between white interpretation of the novel and black interpretation of it. Although Huckleberry Finn was published long after the Civil War, racial prejudice and injustice still remained in all aspects of American life. As a result, African-Americans were largely excluded from American literary institutions like universities and publishing companies. Popular newspapers, magazines, and books were, for the mos... ...ymond W. Smock, eds., The Booker T. Washington Papers. Vol. 10: 1909-1911. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981. p349-50. San Francisco Daily Examiner [unsigned] 1885: March 9. Smith, David Lionel. Ã¢â¬Å"Black Critics and Mark Twain.Ã¢â¬ The Cambridge Companion to Mark Twain. Forrest G. Robinson, ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. p119-20. Notes: [i] One of the newspaper accounts of this scandal can be found in The Critical Response to Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Huckleberry Finn. ed. Laurie Champion (New York, Greenwood Press: 1991) 10-12. [ii] A similarly detailed account of the banning can also be found at http://etext.virginia.edu/railton/huckfinn/hfconcrd.html [iii] A database of the early illustrations of the character Jim, as well as the other characters of the book, is available at http://etext.virginia.edu/railton/huckfinn/jminpix.html Ã
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Comparing the Human Condition in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead and Waiting for Godot :: comparison compare contrast essays
Comparing the Human Condition in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead and Waiting for GodotÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Inspired by BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s literary style, particularly in Ã¢â¬ËWaiting for GodotÃ¢â¬â¢, Stoppard wrote Ã¢â¬ËRosencrantz and Guildenstern are DeadÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã As a result of this, many comparisons can be drawn between these two plays.Ã StoppardÃ¢â¬â¢s writing was also influenced by ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã Rosencrantz and Guildenstern as minor characters exist within ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s world providing Stoppard with his protagonists.Ã However, the play is not an attempt to rewrite Ã¢â¬ËWaiting for GodotÃ¢â¬â¢ in a framework of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s drama.Ã Ã In studying these texts, the reader is provoked into analysing, comparing and contrasting them.Ã In particular the characters in Ã¢â¬ËRosencrantz and Guildenstern are DeadÃ¢â¬â¢ provide intriguing material to consider the human condition.Ã The characters, their personality traits and responses to stimuli, as well as what directs and motivates them, is worthy of discussion.Ã Ã Stoppard gives Rosencrantz and Guildenstern an existence outside Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢, although it is one of little significance and they idle away their time only having a purpose to their lives when the play rejoins the Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢ plot, after they have been called by the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s messenger: Ã¢â¬Å"There was a messenger...thatÃ¢â¬â¢s right.Ã We were sent for.Ã¢â¬ Ã Their lives end tragically due to this connection with Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢, predetermined by the title, but the role provided them with a purpose to their otherwise futile lives, making them bearable.Ã Their deaths evoke sadness and sympathy leaving the reader grieving for them. Ã In contrast to StoppardÃ¢â¬â¢s play Ã¢â¬ËWaiting for GodotÃ¢â¬â¢ is much bleaker in the respect that Vladimir and Estragon seem to have no purpose or direction in their lives.Ã Their only hope rests on the mysterious Godot who never comes, however they do remain alive at the end.Ã This leads the reader to question which pair of characters are the most unfortunate.Ã Rosencrantz and Guildensten may not have been saved from death but they have been saved from the futility of life which Vladimir and Estragon exclaim:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"We canÃ¢â¬â¢t go on like thisÃ¢â¬ yet ironically they are left to do so.Ã Ã In Ã¢â¬ËWaiting for GodotÃ¢â¬â¢, we know little concerning the protagonists, indeed from their comments they appear to know little about themselves and seem bewildered and confused as to the extent of their existence.Ã Their situation is obscure and Vladimir and Estragon spend the day (representative of their lives) waiting for the mysterious Godot, interacting with each other with quick and short speech. Comparing the Human Condition in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead and Waiting for Godot :: comparison compare contrast essays Comparing the Human Condition in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead and Waiting for GodotÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Inspired by BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s literary style, particularly in Ã¢â¬ËWaiting for GodotÃ¢â¬â¢, Stoppard wrote Ã¢â¬ËRosencrantz and Guildenstern are DeadÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã As a result of this, many comparisons can be drawn between these two plays.Ã StoppardÃ¢â¬â¢s writing was also influenced by ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã Rosencrantz and Guildenstern as minor characters exist within ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s world providing Stoppard with his protagonists.Ã However, the play is not an attempt to rewrite Ã¢â¬ËWaiting for GodotÃ¢â¬â¢ in a framework of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s drama.Ã Ã In studying these texts, the reader is provoked into analysing, comparing and contrasting them.Ã In particular the characters in Ã¢â¬ËRosencrantz and Guildenstern are DeadÃ¢â¬â¢ provide intriguing material to consider the human condition.Ã The characters, their personality traits and responses to stimuli, as well as what directs and motivates them, is worthy of discussion.Ã Ã Stoppard gives Rosencrantz and Guildenstern an existence outside Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢, although it is one of little significance and they idle away their time only having a purpose to their lives when the play rejoins the Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢ plot, after they have been called by the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s messenger: Ã¢â¬Å"There was a messenger...thatÃ¢â¬â¢s right.Ã We were sent for.Ã¢â¬ Ã Their lives end tragically due to this connection with Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢, predetermined by the title, but the role provided them with a purpose to their otherwise futile lives, making them bearable.Ã Their deaths evoke sadness and sympathy leaving the reader grieving for them. Ã In contrast to StoppardÃ¢â¬â¢s play Ã¢â¬ËWaiting for GodotÃ¢â¬â¢ is much bleaker in the respect that Vladimir and Estragon seem to have no purpose or direction in their lives.Ã Their only hope rests on the mysterious Godot who never comes, however they do remain alive at the end.Ã This leads the reader to question which pair of characters are the most unfortunate.Ã Rosencrantz and Guildensten may not have been saved from death but they have been saved from the futility of life which Vladimir and Estragon exclaim:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"We canÃ¢â¬â¢t go on like thisÃ¢â¬ yet ironically they are left to do so.Ã Ã In Ã¢â¬ËWaiting for GodotÃ¢â¬â¢, we know little concerning the protagonists, indeed from their comments they appear to know little about themselves and seem bewildered and confused as to the extent of their existence.Ã Their situation is obscure and Vladimir and Estragon spend the day (representative of their lives) waiting for the mysterious Godot, interacting with each other with quick and short speech.